Question: I have a lot of money owed to me, but it is not certain when debtors pay it off. Do I have to pay zakat now?
It is not a condition that you pay zakat now. If you do not pay it now, you must give zakat retrospectively for previous years when you collect debts.
Question: Suppose that I am owed money by someone who went bankrupt or denied the debt. Do I have to pay zakat for this money?
Property that is lost, that has been usurped, or the place where it was buried has been forgotten, and dues that are denied are not included in the calculation of nisab, and if they are recovered the zakat of previous years is not given.
Question: Does a woman have to give zakat on gold she will receive from her husband as her deferred mahr?
She must include it in nisab but she does not give zakat on it. She gives zakat on it after receiving it.
Question: Some people say, “Something lent is not included in nisab and its zakat is not given unless it is collected. To be able to include it in nisab and to give its zakat, it is a condition that it be transferred to one’s bank account. No matter how many years pass, zakat is still not given unless it is collected.” Is it not needed to give zakat for previous years when the debt is collected?
Of course, it is given. It is permissible to give zakat even before debts are collected.
Dues for which there are written proofs or two witnesses for each or which are confessed by the debtors are included in the nisab even if they are kept by an insolvent or poor person. When one receives them, one gives their zakat for the past years as well. (Se’adet-i Ebediyye)