Question: Do saima animals have to be female? Is zakat given on male animals, too?
Saima are male or female animals that graze in the fields free of charge for more than half of the year and are intended for meat or for milk. If they are kept only for their wool or carrying loads or riding, then they are not termed saima, and zakat is not given on them.
Question: Is it necessary to give zakat on animals kept at home or in one’s garden?
If those animals that graze in the fields free of charge for more than half of the year are kept for breeding or for milk, they are termed saima. If they reach nisab in number, it is necessary to give zakat. If they are kept for their wool or for carrying loads or for riding, then they are not called saima, and it is not necessary to give zakat on them. (Mawqufat)
That is, if they do not graze in the fields free of charge but are kept at home, zakat is not given on them even if they are kept for breeding or for meat and milk. Zakat is not given on animals if they are kept for plowing or carrying loads or riding.
Question: How should the zakat of cattle be given? What is the nisab of cattle?
A person who has fewer than 30 heads of cattle does not give zakat for them. For 30 heads one male or female calf over one year of age is given. It is the same up to 39 (inclusive) heads. For 40 to 59 heads one male or female calf over two years of age is given. For 60 to 69 heads two calves over two years of age are given. One calf over two years of age and one over one year of age are given for 70 heads. This calculation is done for every10 heads over 70 heads. One calf over one year of age is added for every 30 heads and one calf over two years of age is added for every 40 cattle. When the number reaches 80, two calves over two years of age are added. The zakat of water buffalos is the same as the zakat of cattle. (Se’adet-i Ebediyye)
Question: Is a female camel given as the zakat of camels?
A person who has 5 camels gives 1 sheep. 1 sheep is to be given for up to 9 (inclusive) camels. A person who has 10 to 14 (inclusive) camels gives 2 sheep. 3 sheep are to be given for 15 to 19 (inclusive) camels, and 4 for 20 to 24. For 25 to 35 camels a young female camel which is in its second year is given. For 36 to 45 camels a young female camel in its third year is given. For 46 to 60 camels a female camel which is in its fourth year and which can already carry a burden is given. The calculation continues in certain quantities as the number of camels increases. (Se’adet-i Ebediyye)
Question: What is the nisab of sheep and goats?
The nisab for sheep is 40. A person who has fewer than 40 sheep does not give zakat for them. A person who has 40 to 120 sheep gives only one sheep. 2 sheep are given for 121 to 200 sheep. 3 sheep are given for 201 to 400 sheep. 4 sheep are given for 400 sheep, and 1 sheep is added for every additional hundred sheep.
The zakat of sheep and goats are the same, whether they are male or female.
Zakat is not given for lambs that have not completed their first year. But if one has sheep also, one includes the lambs into the calculation, too. So is the case with the calves of camels and cattle. A lamb is never given as zakat. (Se’adet-i Ebediyye)
Question: What is the nisab of horses and donkeys?
Zakat is necessary when male and female horses are fed together for breeding in the fields. Zakat is not necessary if they are intended for transportation or for carrying things. Zakat is not fard for one who has only male horses [stallions] because one cannot breed them. If they are kept for commercial purposes, one gives their zakat as commercial property. Zakat is not given for mules and donkeys not intended for trade, even if they are legion. (Se’adet-i Ebediyye)
There is no nisab for horses. One mithqal of gold [4.8 grams] is given for each horse. One may as well calculate their value and give one-fortieth of their value in gold if their value equals the amount of nisab.
Question: How should the zakat of animals kept for fur farming be given?
If the value of those animals reaches nisab, zakat is given on their value.
Question: Should one deduct one’s debts when calculating the zakat of animals?
Yes, one should.