Question: Which brings more thawab: performing salat wearing a turban or a taqiyah (short, rounded cap)?
Wearing a turban in salat is superior to wearing a taqiyah. Performing it wearing any type of headgear is superior to performing it bareheaded. It is said in hadith-i sharifs:
(Angels clad in turbans helped at Badr and Hunayn. The turban is something that distinguishes a Believer from a disbeliever.) [Daylami]
(Wrapping a turban around the taqiyah is what distinguishes us from polytheists. A light [noor] is granted for each winding of the turban.) [Imam-i Mawardi]
(Two rak’ats of salat performed with a turban is superior to seventy rak’ats performed without a turban.) [Abu Nu’aym]
It is said in a hadith-i sharif reported by Ibn ‘Asakir, “The Messenger of Allah used to wear a taqiyah either underneath his turban or without winding a turban around it.”
It is declared in a hadith-i sharif reported by Muslim, “When the Messenger of Allah wrapped a turban, he used to allow [about two spans] from the end of his turban to hang down between his two shoulder blades” (Mawahib-i Ladunniyya).
Question: Is it permissible to wear a colorless, transparent nylon taqiyah in salat?
It is sunnat for a man to cover his head in salat. He is not required to conceal his hair but to perform the sunnat by placing something on his head. A man can wear a transparent nylon cap with the intention of performing the sunnat.
Question: In the Shafi’i Madhhab, is it not sunnat for a man to cover his head in salat?
It is sunnat in the Shafi’i Madhhab, too, to cover his head with a turban or taqiyah. (Fatawa-i kubra, vol. 1, p. 169)
A taqiyah cannot be a substitute for a turban in all of the four madhhabs. However, the taqiyah, as it covers the head, keeps salat from becoming makruh. Of course, it is better to perform salat wearing a turban.
It is sunnat for a man to cover his head in salat in all of the four madhhabs. It is makruh in all of the four madhhabs to perform salat with his sleeves rolled up. The exception is when he is at the Ka’ba. A man and a woman are not allowed to perform salat side by side under normal conditions. But this is allowable when they are at the Ka’ba. The ruling regarding this matter is different when one is at the Ka’ba.
Question: Is it permissible to perform salat wearing a taqiyah on which it is written Allah?
It is permissible.
Question: Is it permissible to perform salat wearing a taqiyah on which there is a picture of the cross or the symbol of Zionism?
It is in no way permissible to wear a taqiyah on which there is a picture of the cross because it is connected to ibadah (acts of worship). There is nothing wrong with the presence of the symbol of Zionism because it is connected to adah (custom).
Question: Is there anything wrong with entering the toilet wearing a taqiyah that one uses for salat?
There is nothing wrong with it. It is sunnat to enter the toilet wearing a taqiyah.
Question: Is it allowable to use a taqiyah that has a bun on it?
Yes, it is allowable.
Question: If one, when performing wudu’, does not use a miswak, but brushes one’s teeth only with a toothbrush, will one be considered to have performed the sunnat act?
A toothbrush does not replace a miswak, and a taqiyah does not replace a turban. However, one is considered to have performed the sunnat if one cleans one’s teeth with a toothbrush because the sunnat will be considered to have been performed when the teeth are rubbed or cleaned with something or with the fingers. If one cleans one’s teeth with a miswak, one will earn the reward of mustahab, plus the reward of sunnat. One should not belittle mustahab acts. Hadrat Imam-i Rabbani says:
“Mustahab is something that Allahu ta’ala likes. If one barters all that is in the world for something that Allahu ta’ala likes, one is not considered to have given anything” (Barakat).
Using a taqiyah for salat will cause one to perform the sunnat and prevent one from committing makruh. If one uses a turban as well, one will earn the reward of mustahab, too. A hadith-i sharif says:
(Two rak’ats of salat performed while one is wearing a turban is superior to seventy rak’ats performed without it.) [Abu Nu’aym]
Wrapping a turban is sunnat-i zawaid. That is, it is a sunnat connected to the manner of dressing. Arab disbelievers, too, used to go out wearing a turban. A hadith-i sharif says:
(The turban is the crown of Arabs.) [Bayhaqi]
As our Master the Messenger of Allah, too, wore a turban, it became sunnat-i zawaid on us. Wearing it during salat is mustahab. It is better if a man, before salat, winds a piece of cloth around his taqiyah when he is at home. We should not belittle any mustahab act.
Question: If a man has started salat without wearing a taqiyah, is it permissible for him to break salat to wear it?
It is not permissible because wearing a taqiyah is sunnat. It is not allowable to commit a haram act in order to perform a sunnat act, for breaking salat is haram.
Question: Can a man use a handkerchief in the absence of a taqiyah?
Yes, he can.
Question: Is it makruh for a man to wear a lace taqiyah on which there are big holes that make his hair visible or to wear a taqiyah with a hole that is large enough for a finger to fit through?
It is not makruh if the hair of a man is seen. It is sunnat for him to cover his hair. This sunnat can be performed even with a taqiyah on which there are holes.
Question: Is it considered a wasteful expenditure to buy an extra taqiyah if a man has forgotten his taqiyah at home?
It is not considered a wasteful expenditure to buy one more taqiyah.