Question: Is it permissible to do masah over khuffs?
Of course, it is permissible. Our Master the Prophet put on khuffs and demonstrated how to do masah (rubbing the wet hands gently) over them. Many things such as the method of performing a salat have not been explained in the Qur'an al-karim. We do them how our Master the Prophet did, for Allahu ta'ala says:
(Whoever obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah.) [An-Nisa' 80]
(Whatever the Prophet commands you to do, do it. Whatever he forbids you to do, do not do it.) [Al-Hashr 7]
(Elucidate to humans what I sent down.) [An-Nahl 44]
What is declared in hadith-i sharifs about khuffs is as follows:
(Jews, when performing salat, do not cover their feet with na'ls [a kind of shoes similar to khuffs with leather soles and straps] or khuffs [waterproof footwear covering the part of the foot that is fard to wash in wudu']. Oppose them, and put on na'ls or khuffs.) [Muslim, Abu Dawud]
(Oppose polytheists. Put on your khuffs when performing salat.) [Hakim]
(If a person has no na'ls [at hajj], he should put on his khuffs.) [Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Imam-i Ahmad]
(The period of time during which one can do masah over one's khuffs is three days plus three nights [72 hours] for someone traveling and one day plus one night [24 hours] for a resident [muqim].) [Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi]
The Messenger of Allah used to order us to do masah over our khuffs when we are travelers, too. (Nasai, Tirmidhi)
On the day when Mecca was conquered, our Master the Prophet performed salats with one wudu' and did masah over his khuffs. Hadrat 'Umar, upon seeing it, said, "O the Messenger of Allah! Today you have done something you never did before." Our Master the Prophet replied:
(O 'Umar! I did it deliberately.) [Muslim, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Nasai]
Hadrat Mughira poured water for our Master the Prophet. He made wudu' with it and did masah over his khuffs. (Bukhari, Muslim)
When our Master the Prophet did masah over his khuffs, they said to him, "O the Messenger of Allah! We think you have forgotten [to wash your feet]." He answered:
"No, I did not forget it. My Lord ordered me to do so" [Abu Dawud].
Our Master the Prophet, after putting on a pair of khuffs sent by Najashi, the ruler of Abyssinia, did masah over them. (Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, Imam-i Ahmad)
He, while on a journey, made wudu' and then pointed to his khuffs and said, "I put them on when in a state of purity [wudu']." Then he did masah over them. (Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud)
Our Master the Prophet used to do masah over the upper faces of his khuffs. (Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud)
Hadrat Ali stated:
"If the religion were according to reason and opinions, under the soles of khuffs would be more worthy of wiping than the upper faces of them. But I always saw the Messenger of Allah wipe over the upper faces of his khuffs" [Abu Dawud].
Our Master the Prophet was also reported to have done masah over shoes and thick socks. (Nasai)
Sufyan al-Thawri, Ibn Mubarak, Imam-i Shafi'i, and Imam-i Ahmad say that one can do masah over thick socks. (Tirmidhi)
When asked what the period of time during which one could do masah over khuffs was, Hadrat Aisha said:
"Ask the son of Abu Talib because he used to be with the Messenger of Allah on journeys." When Hadrat Ali was asked about it, he said, "Our Master the Messenger of Allah appointed three days and nights for a traveler and one day and night for a resident, to do masah over khuffs" [Muslim].
Question: A friend of mine says, "It is ordered in the Qur'an that one should do masah over one's bare feet in wudu'. Besides, the Qur'an says that there are three fard salats. What most people do today is wrong." Does what he says have any basis in fact?
There is not a Qur'anic verse stating that the number of fard salats is three and that one should do masah over one's bare feet when performing wudu'. The verse that talks about wudu' is as follows:
(O you who believe! When you rise up for salat, wash your faces and your hands up to your elbows and wipe your heads and wash your feet up to your ankle bones.) [Al-Ma'idah 6]
Our Master the Prophet made wudu' for years, but he did not do masah over his bare feet even on one occasion. But he did masah over his khuffs. There are many authentic hadiths about it. Who can understand the Qur'an al-karim better than the Messenger of Allah?
There were thousands of Sahabis. Thousands of Tabi'in saw them do it, and thousands of books were written. But it is not written in any of them that one can do masah over one's bare feet.
It is wrong to say that only three fard salats appear in the Qur'an. Our Master the Prophet performed five daily salats for years. There are countless authentic hadiths concerning them. Do not trust the statements of those who do not base what they say on accredited fiqh books.
Question: If a person does not accept the permissibility of doing masah over khuffs, is he or she not considered a person of Ahl as-Sunnah wa'l Jama'ah?
No, he or she is not, for considering masah over khuffs to be permissible is one of the creedal points of Ahl as-Sunnah wa'l Jama'ah.
Question: What qualities should khuffs have?
A khuff is a waterproof shoe covering that part of the foot which is fard to wash in wudu'. Khuffs must be strong and fit well enough so that the feet would not go out of them if one took an hours walk. They cannot be made of wood, glass, or metal because one cannot walk for an hour in something hard. Masah is permissible on socks whose soles and upper faces or only soles are covered with leather or on thick socks that are so tough that they will not fall down when walked in.
Question: What is the acceptable extent for holes on a khuff?
It is not valid to make masah on any khuff which has a rip large enough to let three toes through. There is nothing wrong if it lets two toes through. If the khuff has lining sewn on itself, its lining is considered to be the khuff.
Question: If a person puts on khuffs after making tayammum and then finds water, is it permissible to do masah over them when he makes wudu'?
A person who puts on khuffs after performing tayammum is not allowed to do masah over them when he makes wudu' with water. He has to wash his feet.
Question: Is it necessary to clean the najasat on khuffs if there is any? Or does it suffice to do masah over them?
If there is so much najasat on khuffs that it is an obstacle to the validity of salat, it is fard to clean it off the khuffs. Doing masah over them does not substitute for cleaning them. One has to wash them.
Question: Is it permissible to do masah on regular socks, bare feet, or nail polish?
Masah can be applied on khuffs and bandages. When a person has difficulty in washing his or her feet, he or she is not allowed to do masah over his or her bare feet or over nylon socks. Nor is it permissible to do masah over nail polish.
Question: What are the rulings of the Maliki Madhhab regarding masah over khuffs?
Khuffs must be made of leather or the like. It cannot be of wool. Masah must be applied both over the topside and underside of the khuffs. One must wear khuffs with the intention of following the sunnah or protecting oneself from the cold, not with the intention of sparing oneself the difficulty of washing one's feet. According to the Maliki Madhhab, there is no time limit to how long one can continue to do masah over one's khuffs without having to remove them. One can do masah over them until one becomes junub (one who needs ghusl). It is sunnat to take them off only on Fridays to take ghusl. A Hanafi person who imitates the Maliki Madhhab [because of a problem] cannot wear them for more than 24 hours.
Question: What is the method of doing masah over khuffs according to the Maliki Madhhab?
Masah must be applied both on the topside and underside of the khuffs. To do it, the right hand is wetted and the fingers of it is put on top of the khuff, placing them on the tip of the khuff. The left hand is wetted and the palm of it is put under the same khuff, placing them on the tip of it. Then the tip of the thumb of the right hand being on the left side and the tips of the three fingers being on the right side, the hand is moved toward the leg until it reaches the end of the khuff. At the same time, the left hand is moved on the underside of the khuff until it reaches the heel and then the leg (until the end of the khuff). After the right khuff, the left one is wiped. The same procedure is followed with the left khuff, yet this time the right hand will be used for the sole of the khuff and the left hand for the upper face.
Question: Should one wear khuffs when one is in a state of wudu' or when one is not in a state of wudu'?
One must wear them when in a state of wudu'. It is not necessary to wipe over them when one puts them on. One does masah over them when one is making wudu' again after the first wudu' is nullified.
Question: The time limit for masah over khuffs is 24 hours. When does this period commence? From the time when the khuffs are put on or from the time when wudu' is nullified?
The commencement of this period is from the time when one's wudu' is nullified after one puts on khuffs.
Question: Upon the expiry of the period allowed for masah over khuffs, should one remove khuffs and renew wudu', though one is in a state of wudu'? If one washes only one's feet, will a new 24-hour period begin?
It suffices to wash only the feet.
Question: Can a thick, closely knitted chunky sock or wool sock be used as a khuff?
In order for a sock to be permissible to be wiped over, it should meet these conditions: It should be so thick that it will not fall down when walked in, and it should cover the heels.
Question: Is it permissible to use khuffs with soles made of plastic?
Any socks whose soles are covered with leather can be used, too. It is also permissible to do masah on military boots.
Question: After making wudu' and putting on my khuffs, I put on stockings over my khuffs. When my wudu' is nullified, I do masah over my stockings. Does it harm wudu'?
It does not harm wudu'. If the socks are very thin and fine, thus letting water reach the khuffs, it does not harm wudu' because they let water reach the khuffs. If socks are thick, thus not letting water reach the khuffs, then the socks are regarded as khuffs, and such a person is considered to have done masah over them.
Question: If I, after doing masah over my socks that I put on over my khuffs, take off my socks, will I have to do masah over my khuffs, too?
Yes, you will have to do masah over the khuffs, too. In such a case, those Hanafis who imitate the Maliki Madhhab must do masah over their khuffs immediately in order to avoid interrupting continuity (muwalat).
Question: If I take off my khuffs when I am in a state of wudu' before going to bed, it nullifies my wudu'. Do I have to make wudu' again so that I may be considered to have gone to bed in a state of wudu'?
It suffices to wash only the feet. There is an easier solution than the mentioned one: Get into bed without taking off your khuffs. You may recite the prayers to be recited in bed. It is up to you. Then take off your khuffs. Thus, you are considered to get into bed in a state of wudu'. The same thing may be done when one is resisting the urge to urinate or defecate. That is, one gets into bed and then immediately gets out of bed. One goes to the toilet and comes back. In this case, one is considered to have gone to bed in a state of wudu'. Getting into bed in a state of wudu' does not mean keeping the wudu' until one goes off to sleep. If one gets into bed with wudu' and one's wudu' is nullified at that moment, one is considered to have gone to bed in a state of wudu'. If one dies in this state, one will earn the reward of a martyr. For this reason, one should always go to bed with wudu'. If one gets into bed with khuffs on and takes them off in bed, one is considered to have gone to bed in a state of wudu'.
Question: How long can those Hanafis who imitate the Maliki Madhhab do masah over their khuffs without having to take them off? For a period of 24 hours or isn't there a limit to it?
They can do masah over them without taking them off for 24 hours because they are not considered to have abandoned the Hanafi Madhhab, which they normally follow.
Question: According to the Shafi'i Madhhab, it is not permissible to wear another pair of khuffs over khuffs. Does this rule also apply to putting on socks underneath khuffs?
One can put on socks underneath khuffs. The rule regarding khuffs does not apply to socks.
Question: Is it permissible to wear khuffs all year round?
Khuffs are not put on only to protect oneself from the cold. They can be put on even in summer.
Question: According to the Maliki Madhhab, is it permissible to do masah over a pair of socks that have been put on over khuffs?
Yes, it is permissible.
Question: Supposing one's foot is bleeding. If one puts on khuffs when the bleeding stops and afterwards feels that it oozes blood, is it permissible to do masah over these khuffs?
Yes, it is permissible.
Question: Is washing the feet better than doing masah over khuffs?
Of course, it is better. But putting them on and doing masah over them will be better if it is done to oppose Rafidis (one of the heretical groups in Islam).
Question: If a person without wudu' washes his feet and puts on his khuffs and then makes wudu' but does not wash his feet, is his wudu' considered valid?
Yes, it is valid according to the Hanafi Madhhab.
Question: Is it permissible for working women to do masah over stockings?
It is not permissible to do masah over stockings. If a woman has difficulty in making wudu' at work, she should conjoin Salat az-Zuhr with Salat al-Asr and Salat al-Maghrib with Salat al-Isha by following the Hanbali Madhhab. That is, if she has sufficient time within the time for Salat az-Zuhr, she should perform Salat al-Asr at that time, too. If it is difficult for her to perform Salat al-Maghrib, she should perform it within the time for Salat al-Isha when she comes home.
Question: According to the Maliki Madhhab, there is no time limit to how long a person can continue to do masah over his or her khuffs without removing them. Does it also apply to a Hanafi person who imitates the Maliki Madhhab?
No, it does not apply to a Hanafi person who imitates the Maliki Madhhab because such a person is not considered to have abandoned the Hanafi Madhhab, which he or she normally follows. However, if he or she forgets to remove the khuffs for a few days and does masah over them continuously, his or her salats become valid if he or she says when remembering it, "I performed those salats according to the Maliki Madhhab."
The procedure to be followed in imitating another madhhab is this: One has to obey the rules that the second madhhab has established concerning the act of worship for which one imitates that madhhab and has to avoid doing whatsoever the second madhhab has pronounced to be detrimental to that act of worship. But one has to obey all the rules of the madhhab one normally follows.
Question: When one takes off one's khuffs, should one make a full wudu', or does it suffice to wash only one's feet?
If one is in a state of wudu', it suffices to wash only one's feet. If one is not in a state of wudu', one should make a full wudu'.
Question: Women, while traveling, have difficulty in making wudu'. In this case, is it permissible for them to apply masah over their shoes?
In order for a pair of shoes to be permissible for masah, it is a condition that it should come up over the ankles. It is permissible to do masah over it then. Besides, one must put it on when in a state of wudu'. If a woman who is making a journey needs to make wudu' on the road, she can wash her feet with her socks on to avoid exposing her legs. If it is not possible to do so either, she can conjoin two salats.
Question: The compression stockings recommended by the doctor are very tight and quite difficult to put on. They should be worn when one gets up in the morning and taken off before one goes to bed in the evening. Can a patient do masah over these stockings?
No, masah cannot be done over them. There are soft khuffs called leather socks on the market. If you put them on over compression stockings, you do masah over them.
Question: The doctor has prescribed me a pair of shoes which is rather difficult for me to put on and take off. Is it permissible for me to do masah over these shoes with the socks underneath them. That is, do the shoes, together with socks, fall into the category of khuffs?
Yes, they do. Masah is done over the shoes. When the hand is passed over the shoe, the masah that will be done over the ankle will be done over the sock.
Question: What are the rulings of the other three madhhabs concerning masah over khuffs?
According to the Maliki Madhhab, it is permissible to do masah over khuffs for life if nothing that nullifies ghusl occurs. According to the other madhhabs, it is not permissible to do masah over khuffs for more than one day when one is a resident (muqim) and for more than three days when one is a traveler.
Question: Supposing a person who is not a traveler forgets to remove his khuffs and does masah over them for more than 24 hours. Are his salats valid?
They are not valid. If he says when he remembers it, "I performed those salats according to the Maliki Madhhab," they become valid because forgetting is an excuse that Islam accepts.
Question: If the sole of a nylon sock is covered with leather, can it be used to be wiped over (khuffs)?
It is permissible according to the Hanafi Madhhab.
Question: Is it permissible for a person the front part of whose foot has been amputated to put on khuffs?
It is not permissible. One cannot put on a khuff and cannot do masah over such a foot. It is not permissible to put on a khuff and do masah over it while washing the other foot. That is, one must wash both of them. If one's foot has been amputated completely, then it is permissible, as this foot has no part to be washed in wudu', to put on a khuff over the other foot. (Fatawa al-Hindiyya)
Question: I put on my khuffs when in a state of wudu'. My wudu' broke a bit later. After 22 hours, I set out on a journey. How long can I do masah over my khuffs during the journey -- 72 hours or 50 hours?
You can do masah over them for 72 hours.
Question: I did masah over my khuffs for 48 hours on the journey. Then I became a resident (muqim). Can I do masah over my khuffs for one more day?
No, you cannot because the period of time allowed has ended. It is written in the book İslam Ahlakı:
"A traveler who has done masah over his khuffs for a day and night cannot continue to do masah over them when he becomes a resident [muqim]."
Question: On how much of the khuffs is it fard to do masah? What is the sunnat method of doing masah?
It is fard that masah cover an area as wide as and as long as three fingers of the hand. That is, if one puts the four fingers of one's wet hand on the khuff, one has done what is fard. To do masah in accordance with the sunnat way, the five wet fingers of the right hand should be put on the right khuff, and the five wet fingers of the left hand should be put on the left khuff lengthwise. They should be drawn toward the leg, starting from the parts on top of the toes. When one does it in this manner, one has done it in accordance with the sunnat method.
Question: Some people say, "Masah can be done over compression stockings, for the skin under them falls into the category of a wound." Is it true?
There is no rule saying that compression stockings should never be taken off. They can be taken off in the evening before one goes to bed. Doctors say that there is nothing wrong if they are removed as long as one makes wudu'. Therefore, masah cannot be done over them.
If a pious specialist says, "You must not take off your compression stockings even as long as you make wudu,'" then the skin under them falls into the category of a wound, and it would be permissible to do masah over them then.
Question: According to the Maliki Madhhab, is it permissible to use a khuff made of rubber or plastic? Is it mandatory that it should be made of leather?
It is not mandatory. A khuff may be of rubber or plastic, too. Rubber is also called artificial leather. That a khuff must be made of leather means that it should have the qualities of leather.
According to the Maliki Madhhab, if a person puts on another pair of khuffs, knee-high boots, plastic or nylon or rubber shoes on his khuffs before his wudu' [that he made before putting on khuffs] is broken, he can make masah on the outer footwear. (Endless Bliss)
According to the Maliki Madhhab, applying masah over khuffs that are not made of leather is not valid. However, if the topside and underside of a khuff is made of leather but its sides are made of felt or linen, it is permissible to do masah over it. (Al-Fiqh 'Ala al-Madhahib al-Arba'ah)
Question: Supposing a person makes wudu' and puts on his khuffs. His wudu' breaks toward noon, and then he sets out on a journey when the time for Salat al-Isha starts. How many more days can he do masah over these khuffs?
If a person wearing khuffs sets out on a journey within 24 hours [after the breaking of his first wudu'], he can do masah over his khuffs for three days (72 hours), which will be reckoned from the time when his wudu' breaks for the first time on the journey.