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Ghusl, ablution and salât (namâz)  >  Ablution and tayammum  >  Wudu' During Sickness

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Wudu' During Sickness

Question: How should a bedridden patient make wudu' and perform salat?
ANSWER
If it is impossible for such a person to make wudu' or for someone else to help him or her make wudu', he or she should make tayammum and perform salat through gestures. (Maraq-il falah)

Question: If one's foot is cut off by the heel, does one have to wash the place of the cut when making wudu'?
ANSWER
Yes, one has to wash it.

Question: I wear prosthetic leg because my foot has been amputated below my ankle. It is difficult to take it off and wear it again. Is it considered an excuse in order for me to wipe over the prosthesis when I make wudu'?
ANSWER
Yes, it is considered an excuse.

Question: Can women who are afflicted by chronic vaginal discharge or involuntary emission of wind (inability to prevent wind from coming out) imitate the Maliki Madhhab, too?
ANSWER
Yes, they can. This problem does not occur only in men. Women may be afflicted by involuntary emission of wind, too. Emission of wind that happens outside one's physical control does not break the wudu' of one imitating the Maliki Madhhab. If it occurs when one is in salat, one's salat is not nullified, and one's wudu' remains valid even after salat.

Question: If one is afflicted by both urinary incontinence and involuntary loss of wind from one's anus, what should one do regarding wudu'?
ANSWER
One should imitate the Maliki Madhhab. Even if one has five different excuses, none of them breaks one's wudu'. That is, incontinence with wind, urine, vaginal discharge, diarrhea, hemorrhoidal bleeding, blood or pus oozing from a wound, nose bleed, or liquid issuing painfully from the eyes, etc. does not break one's wudu'. If one's wudu' does not become nullified in a manner other than one's ongoing incontinence, one can perform Salat al-Isha with the wudu' he made for Salat al-Fajr, and he can read the Qur'an al-karim because these excuses do not nullify one's wudu' [according to the Maliki Madhhab]. However, the ruling of the Hanafi Madhhab is different, which says that one has to make a fresh wudu' after each salat time begins.

Question: Supposing a Hanafi person is classified as excused due to urinary incontinence. If he passes a little urine voluntarily, does it nullify his wudu'?
ANSWER
He is regarded as excused because of involuntary leakage of urine. He cannot prevent urine from coming out. If he passes urine, his wudu' will not be nullified, even if he forces himself to do so.

Question: I experience involuntary leakage of urine once a day or every other day. I sometimes feel leakage of urine while performing salat. Does my salat become void?
ANSWER
Supposing a person, like you, is afflicted by urinary incontinence but is not regarded as excused as he does not meet the conditions to be classed as excused. If he sees wetness on the clean pad he applied and does not know when urine dripped on it, he should assume that it dripped at the moment he saw it, like in the example of menstrual blood. If he feels doubt about leakage, he should check the pad before standing for salat. If he sees any wetness, he is obligated to renew wudu'. If he has doubts about leakage when he is in salat, he should check his pad as soon as he says salam. If he sees drops of urine, he must repeat that salat. If he checks a few minutes after he has said salam and sees drops of urine, he is considered to have performed that salat in a state of wudu'.

According to the Hanafi Madhhab, a person in this condition does not meet the conditions for being classified as an excused person. But he is considered excused according to the Maliki Madhhab. Therefore, if he imitates the Maliki Madhhab for this problem, involuntary loss of urine does not nullify his wudu'. Nor is the urine that soils his pad or underwear considered impurity (najs). He should make use of this legal concession, thus avoiding causing himself trouble.

Question: I have had a catheter inserted through my urethra to allow drainage of urine. My urine is collected in a bag, so my clothes are soiled with urine. In this case, is it permissible for me to imitate the Maliki Madhhab and to perform salat with impure clothes? Or should I refrain from performing salat and make them up when I am restored to health?
ANSWER
It is haram to refrain from performing salats. It is permissible for you to perform salat in this state because there is no other way out for you. Impurities (najasat) are not an obstacle to the validity of salat according to the Maliki Madhhab.

Question: I underwent ileostomy surgery, during which an excretory opening was made on my abdomen. A pouch has been attached to my abdomen to collect feces. The pouch sometimes leaks waste material. Is it permissible for me to imitate the Maliki Madhhab?
ANSWER
Yes, it is permissible.

Question: I perpetually feel the need to pass urine because of a cold-related illness in my urinary tract, which discomforts me when I am in salat. Is it makruh to perform salat when I am in this state? Is it better to stop performing make-up salats until I am restored to health?
ANSWER
It is not makruh. If you imitate the Maliki Madhhab for this condition, your wudu' will not be broken when there is an involuntary leakage of urine. You should not postpone performing make-ups. Imitate the Maliki Madhhab and perform salat in this state.

Question: When a person has a tooth pulled, should he, if bleeding continues, wait until it gets quite close to the end of the time for the salat within which the tooth was pulled in order to perform that salat, or can he perform it at once?
ANSWER
He does not have to wait until the end of the time for that salat. He can perform it without delay because wudu' is not nullified unless blood comes out of his mouth.

First, he should gargle with salt water and then put a cotton pad on the area. Then he should make wudu' and perform that salat. But if blood comes out of his mouth while he is performing salat, it nullifies his wudu'. For this reason, he can imitate the Maliki Madhhab when performing wudu' lest his wudu' is nullified because of this condition. Then his wudu' will not be invalidated even if the blood oozing from that area comes out of his mouth.

Question: How should a person suffering from bleeding gums make wudu'?
ANSWER
In order for a person to be classed as excused according to the Hanafi Madhhab, bleeding should continue for the duration of an entire salat time period. And then it should occur at least once in each salat time. The situation being so, a person who does not meet the conditions set by the Hanafi Madhhab can imitate the Maliki Madhhab. Gum bleeding will not break his wudu' then. He can perform as many salats as he wishes with one wudu' if his wudu' does not become nullified due to any other reason apart from this problem. For example, he can perform Salat al-Isha with the wudu' that he made to perform Salat al-Fajr.

Question: If a patient does not have anyone to help him, how should he make wudu' and ghusl?
ANSWER
If a patient is unable to make wudu' and cannot find a person to help him make wudu' either, he can make tayammum and perform salat with it.

Question: My old parents have great difficulty in making wudu'. What do you advise them to do?
ANSWER
Old people, by and large, fulfill the conditions to be classed as excused. If they imitate the Maliki Madhhab, chronic discharge, involuntary loss of wind, urinary incontinence, or continuous bleeding occurring in them does not break their wudu'. Just as the Maliki Madhhab is imitated in the case of dental fillings, so it is imitated likewise in the case of afflictions.

Question: I am a female employee, and I have difficulty in finding a place where there are not people to make wudu'. I am having injections because of my illness, and blood comes out of the injection site. Is it permissible for me to imitate the Maliki Madhhab because of this condition?
ANSWER
Yes, it is permissible. It is haram to uncover your arms in the presence of marriageable men. So one can imitate another madhhab in order to refrain from committing something prohibited.

Question: Supposing a certain place on one's body is bleeding. Blood is flowing, though it is a little. What should one do if the time for the salat within which bleeding started is about to end or if there is enough time?
ANSWER
One should put an adhesive bandage on the wound and then make wudu' and perform salat according to the Maliki Madhhab. It suffices to wipe over the bandage. One can perform countless salats with this wudu' unless it becomes invalidated due to any other reason apart from this problem. It is not necessary to renew wudu' because of the blood oozing from the wound.

Question: How should a person with chaps, eczema, or some other wound on his hand make wudu' and ghusl?
ANSWER
If wetting chaps, wounds, or eczema does harm, it is necessary for him to wear, if he can, a glove on his wounded hand. If he cannot find a glove or cannot touch water and cannot dip his face, head, and feet into water, he is allowed to make tayammum. If he cannot succeed in taking a ghusl without wetting the wounded parts, he can make tayammum.

Question: If both hands of a person have been amputated or if a person has lost the use of both hands as a result of paralysis, how should he clean himself after urination or defecation, and how should he make wudu'?
ANSWER
A person whose both hands have been amputated does not have to clean himself after going to the toilet. He makes tayammum by rubbing his arms on some soil and his face against a wall.

Question: If a person has wounds on some of his organs to be washed in wudu', how should he make wudu'?
ANSWER
If more than half of each of his limbs of wudu' or two of his four limbs of wudu' are sound, he makes wudu' and applies masah (wiping) on the wounded parts. If direct masah would be harmful, he makes masah on the bandages (that he has put on the wounds). If more than half of each of his limbs of wudu' are wounded, he makes tayammum. It is not permissible for a person who makes tayammum to wash some of his limbs.

Question: I have wounds and bruises all over my head and face. When I wash my body, water may splash on my face. The doctor told me not to let them come into contact with water. In this case, how should I make wudu' and perform salat?
ANSWER
Put a colorless plastic bag over the part from your head to neck. Wash the rest of your body. Wipe your head and face with a wet hand over the plastic bag. If you pour water over your head over the plastic bag, it substitutes for wiping. There is nothing wrong if you also wipe over it.

Question:
If I apply masah on a bandage that has been wrapped around a part to be washed in wudu' or ghusl, will I have to apply masah on the unwashed skin when the bandage is taken off?
ANSWER
The ointment, the cotton, the wick, the gauze, the plaster, the bandage or the like, which is put on or in a wound, boil, or cut or crack on the skin, if it will be harmful to untie it or to take it off, or if after taking it off washing or masah will harm the wound, we pour water on it if it is waterproof, e.g., covered with ointment or plastic wrap. If it lets water through, we make masah on it. Harming it means a delay in recovery or an exacerbation of pain.

If, after the masah, it is taken off or falls off before the wound heals, the masah is not annulled. If it falls off after the wound heals, it becomes necessary to wash under it. Masah on any of all these things (which are mentioned above) replaces washing under it. He who makes masah on one of them is not a person with an excuse. He can be an imam for healthy ones. Any part which a specialist Muslim doctor has said must not be washed is like a wound. In making masah on it a muhdis [a person without wudu'] and a junub [a person without ghusl] are all in the same category. (Endless Bliss)

Question: I have my foot in plaster because I have twisted my right ankle. There is no bleeding or wound. In spite of this, do I have to renew wudu' before every fard salat? Or can I perform two or three fard salats with one wudu'?
ANSWER
You can perform even five fard salats if your wudu' does not become nullified. When your wudu' breaks, you should apply masah on the plaster while making wudu'.

Question: I have had a traffic accident. I have been making wudu' for a few weeks by applying masah on the plaster cast around my arm. But a Muslim preacher said, "You are classed as an excused person. Therefore, you should wait until it gets quite close to the end of the time for a fard salat and then make wudu'. Besides, you should make wudu' for every fard salat." Is it true?
ANSWER
It is wrong. To start with, a person whose arm is in plaster is not classed as an excused person. A person with a chronic discharge is classed as excused. The former can perform Salat al-Isha with the wudu' he made to perform Salat al-Fajr if he can retain his wudu'. Secondly, a person who is classed as excused does not have to wait until it gets quite close to the end of the time for a fard salat. A person who is afflicted by chronic discharge for the first time and who has not been classed as excused yet waits until it gets quite close to the end of the time for a fard salat. This rule has nothing to do with an arm in plaster cast.

Question: When an intrauterine contraceptive device is placed in the uterus, it is said that it may cause bleeding for a few days. In this case, can a woman imitating the Maliki Madhhab because of having dental fillings perform salat during this period of time?
ANSWER
She should inform us about the number of her days of purity and days of menstruation she had the previous month. If the period she saw the previous month involved istihada (non-menstrual bleeding), she should inform us about the days of purity and menstruation she had in the month before it. We cannot give an answer if she does not let us know them. If the intrauterine device is placed into her uterus within 15-days purity period following her menstruation and if she sees bleeding within this period, she can perform salat. The intrauterine contraceptive device may cause a change in her regular menstrual periods. She makes wudu' when the time for every fard salat begins and performs it. If she imitates the Maliki Madhhab, she does not have to make wudu' when the time for every fard salat begins. When she imitates it, her wudu' will not become invalidated because of device-related bleeding until it is invalidated in a manner other than her ongoing excuse. But if the bleeding starts after she has remained pure for a minimum of 15 days following her most recent menstruation, it will be regarded as menstrual bleeding.

Question: If one frequently vomits because of a disease or pregnancy, does it invalidate one's wudu'?
ANSWER
If such a person imitates the Maliki Madhhab, this condition will not break his/her wudu'.

Question: If one sporadically has nosebleeds due to a disease, do they break one's wudu'?
ANSWER
If blood flows through the nose, it certainly breaks wudu'. But it does not break the wudu' of a person imitating the Maliki Madhhab because it happens outside one's physical control. As it flows outside one's physical control, it does not nullify wudu'. If one hits one's nose against something and blood comes out of the nose, it breaks wudu' because it is not an excuse happening outside one's control.

Question: Supposing a person sometimes or often has nosebleeds. If blood starts flowing through his nose when he is in salat, will his wudu' and salat become invalidated?
ANSWER
If he imitates the Maliki Madhhab, neither his wudu' nor his salat will be nullified.

Question: If a place on the hand or on any other part of a person starts bleeding after the time for a particular fard salat begins, he can perform this salat in this condition toward the end of the time for that salat if blood keeps flowing, such that he cannot perform only the fard salat. Similarly, if a certain place on his hand starts bleeding after the time for Salat al-Isha arrives and it keeps flowing, will he have to wait until the imsak time, which is the latest time for it, to be able to perform Salat al-Isha and Salat al-Witr?
ANSWER
Yes, he has to wait until that time. But if he imitates the Maliki Madhhab, he can perform them immediately. He does not have to wait until imsak time.

Question: A person has fungal infection and a wound on his foot. If he performs salat standing, blood and pus come out due to pressure. Is it permissible for him to perform salat sitting so that his wudu' may not break?
ANSWER
Yes, it is permissible. (Hindiyya)

It is better to imitate the Maliki Madhhab when one is afflicted by such diseases. If one imitates it, blood and pus that come out will not break one's wudu'. When one imitates the Maliki Madhhab due to such conditions or some other excuse, one has to follow the fards (obligatory acts) and mufsids (nullifiers) of wudu', ghusl, and salat prescribed in the Maliki Madhhab.

Question: I have been suffering from hemorrhoids. They ooze blood, dirtying my underpants. I have difficulty in keeping my wudu'. Is there an easy way to retain my wudu'?
ANSWER
There is an easy way: if you imitate the Maliki Madhhab for this problem, neither the bleeding breaks your wudu', nor is it considered religiously dirty (najs). That is, if blood comes out while you are performing salat, it does not break your wudu', so you can perform salat in this state because the blood soiling your underpants is not considered religiously dirty.

If blood emerges before salat, it does not break your wudu', either. But you should, if it is possible and if you have sufficient time, change your underpants because one is not considered to have abandoned the madhhab one normally follows when one imitates another madhhab due to a problem.

Question: If a woman sees chronic vaginal discharge once a day, can she imitate the Maliki Madhhab for it?
ANSWER
Yes, she can.

Question: Some women see abnormal vaginal bleeding following their menses. In addition to it, they have chronic vaginal discharge. Can they imitate the Maliki Madhhab because of these excuses?
ANSWER
Yes, they can imitate it, and their wudu' will not be broken when they are emitted.

Question: My daughter has reached puberty at the age of 13. Can she imitate the Maliki Madhhab because of chronic vaginal discharge?
ANSWER
Of course, she can. Chronic vaginal discharge will not break her wudu' then.
 
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Date of Update
6 Aralık 2021 Pazartesi
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