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The Obligatory Acts of Wudu'

Question: What are the obligatory acts (faraid) of wudu' according to the four madhahib?
ANSWER
According to the Hanafi Madhhab, they are as follows:

1. To wash the face,
2. To wash the two arms [the hands are included in the arms],
3. To apply masah (wiping) on at least one-fourth of the head,
4. To wash the two feet.

According to the Maliki Madhhab, they are as follows:
1. To make intention,
2. To wash the face,
3. To wash the two arms,
4. To apply masah on the entire head,
5. To wash the two feet,
6. Muwalat [to wash the bodily parts one right after another without a break],
7. Dalk [to rub the parts washed].

According to the Shafi'i Madhhab, they are as follows:
1. To make intention,
2. To wash the face,
3. To wash the two arms,
4. To apply masah on a slight portion of the head,
5. To wash the two feet,
6. Tartib [to wash the parts in the prescribed sequence].

According to the Hanbali Madhhab, the number of the faraid (pl. of fard) of wudu' is six. Besides, the conditions of wudu' are considered faraid, too. Then it equals 10 when both are added together:

1. To make intention,
2. To say the Basmala,
3. To wash the face,
4. To wash the mouth,
5. To wash the nose,
6. To wash the two arms,
7. To apply masah on the entire head [the ears are included in the head],
8. To wash the two feet,
9. Tartib,
10. Muwalat.

Question: When we are making wudu', is it appropriate to intend to follow all of the four madhahib?
ANSWER
It is better. In fact, if a person makes wudu' in compliance with the Hanafi Madhhab, that is, if he makes it by observing its faraid, sunnats, and mustahabs according to the Hanafi Madhhab, he is considered to have followed the other three madhahib, too. For example, in wudu',

1. Making intention is sunnat according to the Hanafi Madhhab, but it is fard according to the other three madhahib.

2. Saying the Basmala is sunnat according to the Hanafi Madhhab, but it is fard according to the Hanbali Madhhab.

3. Putting water in the mouth and nose is sunnat according to the Hanafi Madhhab, but it is fard according to the Hanbali Madhhab.

4. Applying masah on the entire head is sunnat according to the Hanafi Madhhab, but it is fard according to the madhahib of Maliki and Hanbali.

5. Tartib (washing the parts in the prescribed order) is sunnat according to the Hanafi Madhhab, but it is fard according to the madhahib of Shafi'i and Hanbali.

6. Muwalat (washing the parts one right after another without a break) is sunnat according to the Hanafi Madhhab, but it is fard according to the madhahib of Maliki and Hanbali.

7.
Dalk (rubbing the parts washed) is sunnat according to the Hanafi Madhhab, but it is fard according to the Maliki Madhhab.

As is seen, if a person performs wudu' according to the Hanafi Madhhab, that is, if he performs it by observing its faraid, sunnats, and mustahabs according to the Hanafi Madhhab, he has performed it according to the other madhahib, too.

Question: What things nullify wudu' according to the other Sunni madhahib?
ANSWER
When blood issues through the skin, it breaks wudu' according to the Hanafi Madhhab. But it does not break wudu' according to the other three madhahib.

Eating camel meat and washing a dead person break wudu' according to the Hanbali Madhhab. But they do not break it according to the other three madhahib.

Direct skin-to-skin contact between a man and a marriageable (non-mahram) woman breaks wudu' according to the Shafi'i Madhhab. But according to the madhahib of Hanbali and Maliki, it breaks wudu' if the touching is lustful. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, it does not break wudu' even if it is lustful.

Question:
Which parts of the face, arms, and feet should be washed in wudu'?
ANSWER
The face is the part between the ear lobes (horizontally) and between the hairline and chin (vertically). The two arms are washed together with the elbows. The two feet are washed together with the ankle bones on both sides. It is mustahab to wash these parts a little more than the compulsory amount, and makruh to wash beyond it. (Endless Bliss)

Question: Is it compulsory to wash the area under the chin during wudu'?
ANSWER
According to the Hanafi Madhhab, it is not necessary to wash the area under the chin, but it is fard according to the Shafi'i Madhhab.

Question: Washing the hands is not listed among the faraid of wudu', but listed among the sunnats of it. Is washing the hands in wudu' a sunnat act?
ANSWER
The hands are included in the arms. So it is fard to wash the hands together with the arms. Washing the hands in the beginning of wudu' is sunnat.

Question: Should the wetness of our hands reach our scalps when we are applying masah on our heads?
ANSWER
No, it is not necessary. What is compulsory is to wipe over the hair.

Question: Applying masah on one-fourth of the head is fard in wudu'. Is it permissible to apply masah on the back of my head so as not to ruffle my hair?
ANSWER
You are counted as having carried out the fard. However, it should be done on the entire head in order for you to be considered to have done it in compliance with the sunnat.

Question:
When a woman is making wudu' at a public place, is it permissible for her to wipe over her headscarf so as not to bare her hair?
ANSWER
No, it is not permissible. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, applying masah on the entire head is sunnat, but applying masah on one-fourth of it is fard. For this reason, it is a condition to do masah on at least one-fourth of it (on the back of the head, for example) without taking off the headscarf. If a Hanafi imitates the Maliki Madhhab, it is fard to apply masah on the entire head.

Question: Is it permissible to apply masah over a taqiyah (cap) or a turban?
ANSWER
No, it is not permissible.

Question: How should a woman do masah if her hair is long? Does it suffice to touch the hair with a wet hand, or is it necessary to wet the hair thoroughly by running fingers through it?
ANSWER
If her hair is long, she, after applying masah on her head with wet hands, grasps the hanging part of her hair and draws her fingers downward until the end of her hair. It is not necessary to wet the scalp. It suffices to touch the hair with the hand, even if no water or moisture has remained on fingers.

Question: Is it permissible to apply masah on the head with the wetness of the hands left after a person has washed his arms?
ANSWER
No, it is not permissible.

Question: Some people say that women are allowed to apply masah over their headscarves as it is easier. Is it permissible to do masah over a headscarf?
ANSWER
No, it is not permissible to apply masah over a headscarf. One has to rub one's hair with one's hand so as to be counted as having applied masah. Similarly, some people who do not follow any madhhab say that it is permissible to do masah over socks. They are not easiness in the religion, but innovations. A hadith-i sharif says (what means):
(He who does not perform acts of worship as we do is not in our community.) [Mizan-ul-kubra]

No one has the right to change the rules of Islam for the sake of easiness and facilitation. In this case, another person may say, "There is no need for wudu'. Making wudu' once a week suffices." Can Islam be based on reason?
 
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Date of Update
6 Aralık 2021 Pazartesi
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