Home About Us Islamic Glossary Order Books Qibla Location Links Question and Contact
Fasting and Ramadan  >  The Importance of Sadaqa al-Fitr

Text size      Send to a friend    Print
 
The Importance of Sadaqa al-Fitr

Question: What is the importance of sadaqa al-fitr? Who gives it? How is it determined?
ANSWER
Giving sadaqa al-fitr becomes wajib upon every Muslim who has property or money as much as the amount of nisab in addition to his or her indispensable belongings and debts. If he or she does not have property or money as much as the amount of nisab, it does not become wajib upon him or her to give sadaqa al-fitr.

(Nisab means border. The border between richness and poverty prescribed by Islam is termed nisab. It is the minimum quantity of specified wealth making one liable to do certain duties. The amount of nisab is 96 grams of gold, or its money or commercial property equivalent.)

It is declared in hadith-i sharifs:
(The fast of Ramadan remains suspended between the sky and the earth. It goes up when sadaqa al-fitr is given.) [Abu Hafs]

(Sadaqa al-fitr purifies a fasting person from the sins that he incurred because of his obnoxious utterances.) [Bayhaqi]

(Sadaqa al-fitr is a means of purification for your rich ones. If your poor ones also give it, Allahu ta'ala grants them a lot more than what they have given.) [Abu Dawud]

According to the other madhahib, giving sadaqa al-fitr is fard (obligatory) upon a person who has a day's food. A hadith-i sharif says, "Everyone, young or old, rich or poor, must give sadaqa al-fitr" (Abu Dawud).

Any person who does not meet the conditions specified by Islam to be considered rich can receive sadaqa al-fitr and zakat (obligatory alms). Giving sadaqa al-fitr becomes wajib upon every Muslim who has property or money as much as the amount of nisab in addition to his or her indispensable belongings and debts. It is haram for such a person to receive sadaqa al-fitr or zakat. The property that is to be included into the calculation for sadaqa al-fitr does not necessarily have to be intended for trade, nor does one have to have had it for one year.

Richness that is known by the public is different from richness defined by Islam. One who does have property or money as much as the amount of nisab is considered poor by Islam. If one who does not own a house or who lives in a rented house has money or gold or commercial property as much as the amount of nisab, one is considered rich by Islam. Such a person must pay zakat and is not permitted to receive zakat.

Zakat is not paid for property that is not for trade, but income from such kinds of property is included into the calculation of nisab.

Those who do not have money or property as much as the amount of nisab are considered poor. Such people can receive zakat. If those with minimum salaries have money or property as much as the amount of nisab after they deduct their debts, they are considered rich and must pay sadaqa al-fitr. [The amount of nisab is 96 grams of gold, or its money or commercial property equivalent.]

Sadaqa al-fitr is given in the holy month of Ramadan. Though it is also permissible to give it before Ramadan or after the Eid, there will be more blessings if it is given before the Eid prayer. It cannot be given before Ramadan in the Shafi'i Madhhab, and it cannot be postponed until after the Eid, either. One who cannot fast because of a good excuse, such as illness, must pay the sadaqa al-fitr if one is rich.

One cannot pay sadaqa al-fitr to one's parents, to any of one's grandfathers or grandmothers, to one's own children or grandchildren, to one's wife, or to a disbeliever. It is permissible to pay sadaqa al-fitr to one's poor daughter-in-law, son-in-law, mother-in-law, father-in-law, brother-in-law, or stepchild. It is a lot more rewarding to give sadaqa al-fitr to such relatives as one's paternal aunt, paternal uncle, maternal aunt, or maternal uncle. According to Imamayn (Imam-i Muhammad and Imam-i Abu Yusuf), a woman can give sadaqa al-fitr to her indebted and poor husband. (Mawkufat)

The amount of sadaqa al-fitr to be paid does not vary from year to year. For sadaqa al-fitr, half a sa' of wheat or flour is given. Or one sa' of barley or dates or raisins is given. Half a sa' is a measure that equals 1750 grams circumspectly. One sa' equals 3500 grams. These amounts do not ever change until Doomsday. For sadaqa al-fitr, wheat or flour or barley or dates or raisins are given. Or it is also permissible to give their gold or silver equivalents. If it is difficult also to give wheat or flour or the other foodstuffs, one may give bread or corns of equal value.

Question: When does sadaqa al-fitr become wajib upon a Muslim?
ANSWER
One who owns money or property as much as the amount of nisab on the third day of Eid al-Adha is considered rich. Herein the amount of nisab is like the nisab for zakat. The difference in nisab for performing sacrifice (Qurban) is as follows:
By the first light of the morning of the first day of Eid al-Fitr, to give the sadaqa al-fitr becomes wajib upon every free Muslim who has property or money as much as the amount of nisab in addition to his or her indispensable belongings and debts. It does not become wajib before or after that time. The property that is to be included into the calculation of nisab for sadaqa al-fitr and Qurban (sacrifice) does not necessarily have to be intended for trade, nor does one have to have had it for one year. The condition is that one should have property as much as the amount of nisab when the morning prayer becomes performable on the first day of Eid.

Question: Who is sadaqa al-fitr paid to? Who isn't it paid to? Do rules and regulations for zakat also apply to sadaqa al-fitr?
ANSWER
Yes, they apply. That is, sadaqa al-fitr, just like zakat, cannot be given to the following people:
One cannot pay sadaqa al-fitr to one's parents, to any of one's grandfathers or grandmothers, to one's own children or grandchildren, to one's wife, or to a disbeliever. It is permissible to pay sadaqa al-fitr to one's poor daughter-in-law, son-in-law, mother-in-law, father-in-law, brother-in-law, or stepchild. It is a lot more rewarding to give sadaqa al-fitr to such relatives as one's paternal aunt, paternal uncle, maternal aunt, or maternal uncle. According to Imamayn (Imam-i Muhammad and Imam-i Abu Yusuf), a woman can give sadaqa al-fitr to her indebted and poor husband. (Mawkufat)

Question: Are the rules with regard to paying sadaqa al-fitr by proxy the same as the rules with regard to paying zakat by proxy?
ANSWER
Yes.

Question:
While sadaqa al-fitr is being given to a poor person, is it permissible to say to him/her that it is a gift, just as it is the case with zakat?
ANSWER
Yes.

Question:
Does one who breaks one's fast with dates have to give sadaqa al-fitr as dates?
ANSWER
No, one gives it as the thing that one mostly eats during a year.

Question: Is it allowed to appoint a person as one's deputy (to give sadaqa al-fitr) by telephone?
ANSWER
It is allowed. It can also be done by e-mail.

Question: If four people appoint a person as their deputy to give their sadaqa al-fitr and if they give the deputy 1750 grams of flour (7 kilograms in total) per head, is it valid?
ANSWER
Yes, it is valid.

Question: If I appoint another person as my deputy and give him money (or agree to give the money later) and say, "I appoint you as my deputy to buy flour on my behalf as much as the amount of sadaqa al-fitr, to distribute it on my behalf as sadaqa al-fitr to whomever you wish as much as you wish and if the deputy says that he accepts it, is it permissible to do so?
ANSWER
There is no problem if the deputy buys flour and gives it. There is also an easier way: This duty will have been carried out if a verbal proxy is taken from 15-20 people and is bought a quarter gold coin with the money they give and this gold coin is given to a poor person.

Question: Is it allowed to give sadaqa al-fitr and zakat to one's maternal or paternal uncles and aunts?
ANSWER
It is allowed.

Question: Is sadaqa al-fitr paid only to poor ones?
ANSWER
Yes.

Question: A person of my acquaintance has sent me his sadaqa al-fitr through someone else. It is $6.42. The sender did not say anything. What should I do?
ANSWER
If you buy gold or silver as much as $6.42 buys, his/her sadaqa al-fitr is counted as having been paid. If you cannot find gold to buy with that money, you can buy a quarter gold coin by adding your own money to it. Then you can sell this coin to whomever you wish.

Question: How can I receive sadaqa al-fitr from my friend by proxy on behalf of poor people?
ANSWER
You can act as a deputy for rich people as well as for poor ones. You should take a verbal proxy from a poor person. That is, he/she should say to you, "I appoint you as my deputy to receive sadaqa al-fitr on my behalf and to spend it as you wish." Then you can receive sadaqa al-fitr from everyone and distribute it to whomever you want.

Question: Is it a requirement that a person must reach puberty and discretion to give sadaqa al-fitr?
ANSWER
No, it is not. If a small child or an insane person has property, his/her sadaqa al-fitr is given out of his/her property. If their guardian (wali) does not give it, the child gives his/her past sadaqa al-fitr when he/she grows up and the insane person gives his/hers when he/she recovers. If a child below the age of puberty does not have property, its father gives its sadaqa al-fitr together with his own sadaqa al-fitr. That is, he gives it if he is rich.

Question: Can I give the sadaqa al-fitr on behalf of my wife and my children without informing them of it and without taking a verbal proxy from them?
ANSWER
Since you have to support your wife and children, you can give it without informing them about it.

Question: Can I give sadaqa al-fitr on behalf of my elder brother and my married sister without them knowing about it?
ANSWER
You cannot give it. When one gives sadaqa al-fitr on behalf of another person out of one's own property, it will be permissible if he/she ordered one to give it beforehand. If he does not give it by order of the second person, it will not be permissible, even if the second person consents to it later on. If one gives it out of their own property or money, it will be permissible when they consent to it. Or they should say, "I appoint you as my deputy to give my sadaqa al-fitr."

Question: I have been appointed as a deputy to give the sadaqa al-fitr on behalf of five people. Do I have to give it as a whole or severally for each?
ANSWER
You can give it as a whole.

Question:
What amount of sadaqa al-fitr should people in the Shafi'i Madhhab pay? And how should they pay it?
ANSWER
1680 grams of wheat or rice or dates or chickpeas or cheese can be given. Neither paper money nor gold or silver coins can be given instead of them. Additionally, it must be given to eight types of people. Though there are scholars who consider that it is permissible to give it to three types of people, finding these three types of people is very difficult; there are next to none today. For this reason, Shafi'ites should pay sadaqa al-fitr by imitating the Hanafi Madhhab.

Question:
Do we have to pay past years' sadaqa al-fitr? If yes, how should we pay it?
ANSWER
Yes, you have to pay it. Paying them, you will have made up for them. You must pay them in gold.

Question: I could not fast because I was on a journey. Do I have to give sadaqa al-fitr?
ANSWER
A person who does not fast because of a good excuse has to give sadaqa al-fitr, too.

Question:
Is it necessary to give sadaqa al-fitr on behalf of a baby in its mother's womb?
ANSWER
It is not given.

Question: I have money as much as the amount of nisab, but I have not had it for one year. Do I still have to give sadaqa al-fitr?
ANSWER
One does not have to have had for one year the property that is to be included into the calculation of nisab for sadaqa al-fitr. If you have money as much as the amount of nisab at that time, you have to give sadaqa al-fitr.

Question: If one finds out after Eid al-Fitr that one gave the sadaqa al-fitr to people to whom it is not permissible to give it, what should one do?
ANSWER
One must repay it to a poor person.

Question: My zakat and sadaqa al-fitr amount a quarter gold coin. Can I give a quarter gold coin for both my zakat and sadaqa al-fitr?
ANSWER
Yes, you can give it.

Question: Is it good to give sadaqa al-fitr more than the amount that one has to give?
ANSWER
Certainly it is.

Question:
If one does not know the rule that the sadaqa al-fitr must be given in gold and has given it for years in paper money, what should one do now?
ANSWER
The amount of sadaqa al-fitr is very small, so it can be repaid in gold. For example, it suffices to give a quarter gold coin for 50 years' sadaqa al-fitr.

Question:
Is it allowed to give zakat and sadaqa al-fitr to the same person?
ANSWER
Yes, it is.

Question:
Is it allowed to give sadaqa al-fitr to one's poor brother or sister?
ANSWER
Yes, it is.

Question: Can I give sadaqa al-fitr to my poor sister?
ANSWER
You can give it to your sister or her children on condition that they are not rich.

Should a traveler give sadaqa al-fitr?
Question: Does a traveler have to give sadaqa al-fitr if he/she has money or property as much as the amount of nisab?
ANSWER
Yes, he/she does.

Sadaqa al-fitr for an insane person
Question:
Does an insane person have to give sadaqa al-fitr?
ANSWER
Yes, if he/she has property, his/her sadaqa al-fitr is given out of his/her own property. If his/her guardian does not give it, the insane person gives his/hers past sadaqa al-fitr when he/she recovers. If he/she does not recover, he/she is not held liable for it. (Durr-ul-mukhtar)

Giving sadaqa al-fitr on behalf of another person
Question:
If a man gives sadaqa al-fitr on behalf of his parents who live with him and on behalf of his son who has reached puberty and discretion, without them knowing about it, is it permissible?
ANSWER
It will be permissible on condition that he will inform them of it later.
 
Back
 
 
 
KEYBOARD  


http://www.myreligionislam.com/detay.asp?Aid=4787
http://www.myreligionislam.com/detail.asp?Aid=4787
Date of Update
22 Aralık 2014 Pazartesi
All the materials on our website have been prepared for the benefit of all people.
Therefore, everybody is allowed to get benefit from them as they wish without submitting a
request for permission on condition that they will be faithful to their original forms.
Set as Homepage   |    Add to Favorites   |    Recommend Site   |    RSS   |   Share Share
Number of Visitors


Hosted by Ihlas Net