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The first human being and the first prophet

Question: There are people who say, “Ādam and Hawwā (Eve) were not the first human beings. We descended from other creatures.” Do these statements have any scientific value?
ANSWER
These statements do not square with the mind, reason, and science. All people are the descendants of Hadrat Ādam. When addressing humans in the Qur’ān al-karīm, Allahu ta’ālā says, “Yā banī Ādama = O sons of Ādam” [Sūrat-ul-A’rāf 26, 27, 31, 35; Sūrat-u Yāsīn 60]

Pertinent āyat-i karīmas (Qur’anic verses) purport as follows:
(When your Lord said, “I will create a caliph on earth,” the angels said, “Will you create those who will make mischief on earth and shed blood?” He said, “I know what you do not know.” He taught Ādam the names of all things [what they are used for, knowledge of methods and techniques of doing them]. Then He said to the angels, “If you, too, know them, utter them.” The angels said, “We have no knowledge other than what You have taught us.” He said to Ādam, “Tell the names of all things [what they are used for].” When Ādam told all of them, your Lord said, “Did I not tell you that I know everything, whether it is unseen, hidden, or manifest, in the heavens and on earth?”) [Sūrat-ul-Baqara 30-33]

(O sons of Ādam! Let not Shaitan deceive you as he got your parents [Hadrat Hawwa and Hadrat Ādam] out of Paradise.) [Sūrat-ul-A’rāf 27]

(It is Allah who created you from a single soul
[from Ādam ‘alaihis-salām] and who created from that his mate [our mother Hawwā].) [Sūrat-ul-A’rāf 189, Sūrat-uz-Zumar 6]

Humans were created from a single person, Hadrat Ādam. (Sūrat-un-Nisā’ 1, Sūrat-ul-An’ām 98)

The first human was created from soil; his offspring, from a semen-drop. (Sūrat-u Fātir 11, Sūrat-ul-Hajj 5, Sūrat-ul-Kahf 37, Sūrat-ul-Mu’min 67)

It is declared in hadīth-i sharīfs:
(Allahu ta’ālā created Ādam ‘alaihis-salām from soil gathered from all quarters of the earth. Therefore, among his offspring, just as there are black, white, dark-skinned, and red ones, so there are also those who are in between these colors. Of them, some are easy-going, some are austere, and some are clean.) [Abū Dāwud]

(Having created Ādam ‘alaihis-salām, Allahu ta’ālā told him, “Go and greet those angels. Your greeting and the greeting of your offspring will be in this manner.”) [Bukhārī]

(Allahu ta’ālā will ask the person who will suffer the lightest punishment in Hell, “If all things in the world were in your possession, would you sacrifice them so as to be released from Hell?” He will reply, “Yes.” Allahu ta’ālā will say, “When you were in Ādam’s loins, I demanded very little of you. ‘Do not commit an act of polytheism,’ I said. But you committed an act of polytheism.”) [Hākim]

(In my ancestral lineage back up to Hadrat Ādam, there were no people who committed adultery. All of them were pure.) [Ibn Sa’d]

(From Hadrat Ādam up to my father, I always passed through married fathers and mothers.)
[Daylamī]

(Gog and Magog, too, are of the descendants of Ādam ‘alaihis-salām.)
[Bayhaqī]

(All of you are the children of Ādam ‘alaihis-salām.) [Bazzār]

After these documentary proofs, can anyone say anything to a person who, by saying, “We descended from not Ādam, but evolved from monkeys and other creatures,” cannot bear being a human and who desires to be an animal?

Question: Is the prophethood of Ādam, Idrīs, and Shīt ‘alaihimus-salām open to doubt?
ANSWER
No, it is not. Idrīs ‘alaihis-salām is one of the grandchildren of Shīt ‘alaihis-salām. Hadrat Shīt is the son of Hadrat Ādam. That Shīt ‘alaihis-salām is a prophet is established by ahādīth. The names of the other two are mentioned in the Qur’ān al-karīm as prophets. Denying them means denying the Qur’ān al-karīm. The Qur’ān al-karīm proclaims as follows, closing the door on drawing different inferences:
(Idrīs, too, was a truthful prophet.) [Sūrat-u Maryam 56]

Just as denying any Qur’anic verse causes disbelief, so does denying this verse. That Hadrat Idrīs is a prophet has been communicated by ahādīth as well. There follows the purport of two pertinent hadīth-i sharīfs:

(During the Mi’rāj, we reached the second sky. Jibrīl [Gabriel] said to its gatekeeper, “Open the gate!” The angel asked him questions similar to the ones asked by the gatekeeper of the first sky. When I called on Hadrat Idrīs, he said to me, “Welcome, O pious Prophet and pious brother!” I asked, “Who is he?” Jabrāil [Gabriel] answered, “He is Prophet Idrīs.”) [Bukhārī, Muslim, I.Ahmad]

(The first of the rasūls [messengers] is Ādam, and the last of them is Muhammad. The first of the prophets of the sons of Israel is Mūsā, and the last of them is ‘Īsā. The first prophet to write with a pen is Idrīs.) [Hākim-i Tirmidhī]

The fact that Ādam ‘alaihis-salām is the first human and the first prophet is written in all Islamic books. Also, it is purported in the Qur’ān al-karīm:

(Allah chose Ādam, Nūh, the family of Ibrāhīm, and the family of ‘Imrān [as prophets], who were in the same line of descent, and exalted them over the worlds.) [Sūrat-u Āl-i ‘Imrān 33]

(These prophets [all of the prophets We sent from Zakariyya ‘alaihis-salām to Idrīs ‘alaihis-salām], on whom Allah bestowed favors, are of the descendants of Ādam, are of those whom We carried with Nūh [in the Ark], are of the descendants of Ibrāhīm and Israel [Ya’qūb], and are whom We have guided, chosen, and liked.) [Sūrat-u Maryam 58]

Another hadīth-i sharīf confirming the prophethood of Ādam ‘alaihis-salām is as follows:
(The first of the prophets is Ādam ‘alaihis-salām.) [Tabarānī]

Besides, Hadrat Imām-i a’zam declares:
The first of the prophets is Ādam ‘alaihis-salām, and the last of them is Muhammad ‘alaihis-salām. (Fiqh-i akbar)

The superiority of Hadrat Ādam
Question:
Two āyāt purport as follows:
(We took a pledge from prophets [that they would worship only Allah and would invite their communities to this]. We took a pledge from you, Nūh, Ibrāhīm, Mūsā, and ‘Īsā, son of Maryam [We took a solemn pledge from those messengers, who were true to their word, that they would fulfill their pledge.].) [Sūrat-ul-Ahzāb 7]

(In the matter of religion [fundamentals of īmān], He enjoined on Nūh, “Uphold [know Allah as one; obey Him; have belief in His prophets, in His books, in the life to come; be Believers and Muslims] the Religion and do not be split.” He laid down for you [your community] as religion what He enjoined on Nūh. He also laid down for you as religion what was revealed to Ibrāhīm, Mūsā, and ‘Īsā.) [Sūrat-ush-Shūrā 13]

Do these verses not prove that the religions revealed to these prophets are the same, that the number of arch-prophets is five, and that Hadrat Ādam is not an arch-prophet?
ANSWER
No, they do not. You cannot take only two verses because it is possible that one verse may be explained by other verses. These verses show that the religions brought by all prophets are the same in terms of essentials of faith. That is, the fundamentals of Āmantu had been the same in all religions before these religions were distorted by evil people.

There follows the purport of three āyat-i karīmas about Hadrat Ādam, who is one of the selected:

(Allah exalted Ādam, Nūh, the family of Ibrāhīm, and the family of ‘Imrān over the worlds.)
[Sūrat-u Āl-i ‘Imrān 33]

(He taught Ādam the names of all things. Then He showed them to the angels and said, “Tell Me the names of these if you are sincere in your words.”) [Sūrat-ul-Baqara 31]

(We created you, then gave you shape, then said to the angels, “Prostrate yourselves before Ādam.” All of them prostrated themselves except Iblīs. He was not of those who prostrated.)
[Sūrat-ul-A’rāf 11]

It is explained in these Qur’anic verses that Hadrat Ādam is one of those who are preferred over the worlds and thus is superior to angels, that angels prostrate themselves before him, and that he knew the essence of all things. It is declared in the Qur’ān al-karīm that no punishment will be inflicted on a nation to which no prophet was sent and that Qābil (Cain), son of Hadrat Ādam, is of the dwellers of Hell. These verses, in the same way, demonstrate that Hadrat Ādam is a prophet.

The following is the purport of some hadīth-i sharīfs about Hadrat Ādam:
(The first of the rasūls [messengers] is Ādam, and the last of them is Muhammad. The first of the prophets of sons of Israel is Mūsa, and the last of them is ‘Īsā.) [Hākim-i Tirmidhī]

(Ādam is a prophet who spoke to Allahu ta’ālā.) [Hākim, Bayhaqī]

(Allahu ta’ālā created Ādam with His hands of power on Friday and blew into him from His spirit.) [Muslim]

(Friday is the master of days in the sight of Allahu ta’ālā. It is more valuable than the days of Qurbān and Ramadan festivals. One of the five peculiarities of Friday is this: Allah created Ādam on Friday. He was descended on earth on this day, and he passed away on this day.) [Bukhārī, I.Ahmad]

(Mūsā asked, “O my Lord! How did Ādam give thanks to you?” Allahu ta’ālā said, “Whatever befell him, he knew it as coming from Me. This recognition of his was regarded as his thanks.”) [Hākim-i Tirmidhī]

(Allahu ta’ālā taught Ādam the art of everything. He provided sustenance for him from the fruits of Paradise. Earthly fruits spoil, but fruits in Paradise do not spoil.) [Tabarānī]

(If a person says “Salāwatullahi ‘alā Ādama” three times every day, all his sins will be forgiven, and he will be a companion to Ādam ‘alaihis-salām in Paradise.) [Daylamī]

(Ādam and Mūsā discussed in the presence of their Lord. Ādam won a victory over Mūsā.) [Bukhārī, Muslim]

Hadrat Ādam is an ulu’l- ‘azm prophet (arch-prophet). (I’tiqād-nāma, Ahlāq-i ‘alai)

Denying the first prophet
Question:
Some people deny the fact that Hadrat Ādam is the first prophet. Qābil, his son, is one of those who will be in Hell. Isn’t this another proof that Hadrat Ādam is the first messenger?
ANSWER
Of course it is. That Qābil, who refused Allah’s commandment, is one the dwellers of Hell proves that his father is a prophet. For Allahu ta’ālā does not hold people responsible for what they have done and does not inflict punishment on them without first sending them a prophet and communicating His religion. As a matter of fact, an āyah purports:

(We do not torment unless We send a messenger [who informs people about what is lawful and what is unlawful] before.) [Sūrat-ul-Isrā’ 15]

(Idrīs, too, was a truthful prophet.) [Sūrat-u Maryam 56]

Just as there people who deny the prophethood of Hadrat Ādam, so there are people who deny the prophethood of Idrīs ‘alaihis-salām. Hadrat Idrīs is one of the grandsons of Prophet Shīt, and he is a prophet to whom 30 suhuf (small books) were revealed.

Three hadith-i sharīf purport:
(During the Mi’rāj, Jabrāil said in the second sky, “He is Prophet Idrīs.”) [Bukhārī, Muslim]

(The first of the rasūls
[messengers] is Ādam, and the last of them is Muhammad. The first prophet to write with a pen is Idrīs.) [Hakīm]

(The first of the prophets is Ādam ‘alaihis-salām.) [Tabarānī]

Hadrat Ādam is the first prophet. There follows the purport of two Qur’anic verses:

(Allah chose Ādam, Nūh, the family of Ibrāhīm, and the family of ‘Imrān [as prophets], who were in the same line of descent, and exalted them over the worlds.) [Sūrat-u Āl-i ‘Imrān 33]

(These prophets [all of the prophets We sent from Zakariyya ‘alaihis-salām to Idrīs ‘alaihis-salām], on whom Allah bestowed favors, are of the descendants of Ādam, are of those whom We carried with Nūh [in the Ark], are of the descendants of Ibrāhīm and Israel [Ya’qūb], and are whom We have guided, chosen, and liked.) [Sūrat-u Maryam 58]

The first of the messengers is Ādam, and the final of them is Muhammad [‘alaihimas-salām]. (Fiqh-i akbar by Imām-i a’zam)

The murder of Qābil (Cain)
Question:
Why did Qābil, the son of Hadrat Ādam, murder his brother Hābil?
ANSWER
Hadrat Hawwa (Eve) used to give birth to a boy and a girl at every delivery. The girl [Aklima] who was born with Qābil was very beautiful. Qābil wanted to marry this sister of his, but Hadrat Ādam objected, saying, “This is Allah’s command. You cannot marry your sister Aklima. If you do not believe me, offer sheep for sacrifice with your brother! The one whose offering is accepted will marry Aklima.” Hābil, owner of livestock, put forth a ram; and Qābil, a farmer, a bunch of wheat ears. A fire used to descend from the sky and burn the offering accepted. The fire that descended from the sky burnt Hābil’s offering. Nothing happened to the bunch of wheat ears. Qābil became furious at it and murdered Hābil.

This incident is mentioned in the Qur’ān al-karīm as follows:
(Relate to them the true news of the two sons of Ādam: They each offered a sacrifice, but it was accepted from one of them and was not accepted from the other. “I will surely kill you,” he [Qābil, whose sacrifice was not accepted, said to his bother Hābil out of jealousy] said. The other said, “Allah only accepts from the pious. Verily, even if you extend your hand towards me to kill me, I will not extend my hand towards you to kill you; I fear Allah, the Lord of the worlds. You will bear both my sin and your sin [that you will commit by killing me and by disobeying Allahu ta’ālā and our father] and will be one of those who will be thrown into the Fire. Such is the requital for zālims.” Thereupon, [Qābil did not know how to kill a human. Murdering a human was a first. He saw Iblis kill a bird by hitting it over the head with a stone, so] following his nafs, he killed his brother [by hitting him over the head with a stone]. He thus became [one of the inmates of Hell and thus suffered a great loss] one of the losers. [Qābil did not know that the dead body had to be buried] Then Allah sent him a crow digging the ground [to bury a dead crow] to show him how to bury the corpse of his brother. He [Qābil] said, “Woe to me! I failed to be like this crow to bury the corpse of my brother.”) [Sūrat-ul-Mā’ida 27-31]

Ancient times
Question:
What happened to the people who lived in ancient times? How could they get through the Pleistocene Epoch, which such strong and tough animals as dinosaurs could not withstand, and sustain their race?
ANSWER
Since all people are the descendants of Ādam ‘alaihis-salām, they somehow stood up to it and came to this day. This is not a difficult thing for Allah. Can’t He, the Creator from nothing, protect the existing beings?

There is not positive information about the dinosaur, which semantically means a terrifying lizard. It is not known for certain why they became extinct. The then conditions might have been fit for humans to survive while it might not have been for animals. A building cannot be erected on an imaginary foundation.

Am I not your Lord?
Question:
It is said, “When Allahu ta’ālā asked all people, ‘Am I not your Lord?’ disbelievers did not say ‘Yes.’” At that time, did all humans not reply in the affirmative?
ANSWER
Yes, all of them replied in the affirmative. An āyat-i karīma purports:
(Lest you should say on the Day of Resurrection, “We were unaware of this,” your Lord brought forth from the loins of sons of Ādam their descendants, made them bear witness for themselves, and said, “Am I not your Lord?” They said, “Yes, we bear witness [to this].”) [Sūrat-ul-A’rāf 172]

In addition, Hadrat Imām-i Ghazālī declares:
Allahu ta’ālā asked them, “Am I not your Lord?” All of them answered, “You are our Lord. We witness it.” Allahu ta’ālā made angels and Ādam ‘alaihis-salām witnesses, and they affirmed that Allahu ta’ālā is the Lord. (Kżyamet ve Ahiret)

Hadrat Hawwa (Eve)
Question:
Some Christians claim that Hadrat Ādam had another wife before Hadrat Hawwa. Is it true?
ANSWER
This is the fabrication of Christian evolutionists. Such a made-up statement is not even written in defiled Bibles. Some evolutionists, without basing their argument on any evidence, say that they evolved from the monkey or the bear. But the fact is that Allahu ta’ālā created all human beings from Hadrat Ādam and Hadrat Hawwa, his spouse. This reality is explicitly made known in the Qur’ān al-karīm:

(Fear your Lord, who created you from a single soul and who created from that his mate and who created from them both many men and women.) [Sūrat-un-Nisā’ 1]

(It is Allah who created you from a single soul [Ādam] and who created from that his mate [Hawwa].) [Sūrat-ul-A’rāf 189]

(O mankind! We created you from a male and a female. We separated you into nations and tribes so that you would meet one another.) [Sūrat-ul-Hujurāt 13]
 
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