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Islamic Glossary

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Islamic Glossary

Verbal English equivalents and explanations are given for the purpose of helping the reader develop some initial notion concerning such technical Islamic terms, although their meanings would require considerable background to understand.

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‘Ābid:


One who worships much; devoted.

Adā:

Performing acts of worship, such as salāt, fasting, hajj or zakāt, in their appointed times.

Adab: (pl. ādāb)

There is a special adab in doing everything. The adab of doing something means to follow the conditions necessary for doing it in the best way.

Adhān:

At each namāz time, a Muslim goes up the minaret and calls all Muslims to namāz. He has to recite prescribed words.

‘Ādil:

A Sunnī Muslim who avoids grave sins and who does not habitually commit venial sins.

Adilla ash-Shar’iyya:

The sources from which Islamic rules were derived: the Book (The Qur’ān al-karīm), the Sunna, qiyas al-fuqahā, and ijmā’ al-Umma.

Afdal:

It means more meritorious.

Ahādīth: pl. of hadīth.

Ahd-i Atik:

The Old Testament.

Ahd-i Jadid:

The New Testament.

Ahkām:

Rules, conclusions.

Ahl:

People.

Ahl al-Bait:

Immediate relatives of our Master the Prophet: (according to most ‘ulamā’) ‘Alī (first cousin and son-in-law), Fātima (daughter), Hasan and Husain (grandsons).

Ahl as-Sunnat: see Ahl as-Sunna (wa’l-Jamā’a)

Ahl as-Sunna (wa’l-Jamā’a):

The true pious Muslims who follow our Master the Prophet and as-Sahābat al-kirām. These are called Sunnī Muslims. A Sunnī Muslim adapts himself to one of the four Madhhabs. These Madhhabs are Hanafī, Mālikī, Shāfi’ī and Hanbalī.

Ahl-i Kitāb:
[lit. the people of the Book]

Jews and Christians.

Ahl-i Qibla:

A Muslim who believes all those religious matters that are indispensable and known through tawātur (consensus).

Ahl-i zimmat: see zimmī.

A’immat al-madhāhib:

It is the plural of imām al-madhhab.

Āisa:

Old woman; older than 55 for Hanafī, 70 for Mālikī.

Ākhirat:

It is the endless life which begins when a person dies.

‘Alaihis-salām:

A supplication said or written whenever the names of prophets mentioned, meaning “Peace be upon Him.”

Alastu:

Allah’s declaration: Alastu bi-rab-bikum? “Am I not your Rabb?” which, when He created Hadrat Adam, He asked all the souls of Hadrat Adam’s descendants that would come until the end of the world.

‘Ālim: (pl. ‘ulamā’)

A Muslim scholar of Islam.

‘Alīm:

One of the 99 Beautiful Names of Allahu ta’ālā, which means the Omniscient.

Allahu ta’ālā:

Allah the Most High.

‘Amal: (pl. a’māl)

Deed; practice of, living up to ‘ilm; ‘ibāda.

Amal-i kasīr:

Actions that are so many as to nullify the namāz are termed amal-i kasīr.

Amal-i qalīl:

Few actions that do not nullify the namāz are termed amal-i qalīl.

Āmantu:

The prayer in which all six tenets of belief in Islam are declared.

Āmīn:

(To Allahu ta’ālā) “Accept my prayer.”

Amr-i-bi-l-ma’rūf:

Duty to teach Allahu ta’ālā’s commandments and prohibitions.

Angels of Haphaza:

The two angels called Kirāman kātibīn, who are on a person’s shoulders and who write down good and bad deeds, and those angels who protect a person against genies are called Angels of Haphaza.

Ansār:

Those Muslims who lived in Madīna and helped Rasūlullah when he migrated to Madīna. Those companions of the Prophet who migrated to Madīna from Mecca are called Muhājir.

‘Āqil bāligh:

Sane and pubert, who has reached the age when he or she started to perform ghusl.

Aqīqa:

It means sacrificing an animal (by cutting its throat) to thank Allahu ta’ālā for a newly born child. Two are sacrificed for a son, while one is sacrificed for a daughter. It is not fard, but mustahab, to sacrifice it. That is, it is not sinful not to sacrifice it.

‘Aql:

Wisdom; it is a comprehensive power that has been created so as to distinguish right from wrong, good from bad, useful from harmful.

‘Aql-i salīm:

The wisdom which is salīm never goes wrong and never errs. It never does anything to necessitate repentance. It does not make mistakes in the things it considers. It always follows the course of actions that are good and that turn out good. It thinks properly and finds the right way. Its deeds are always correct. This wisdom existed in Prophets only. They were successful in every activity they had started. They would not do anything that would make them repent or that would harm them. The one which is close to theirs is the wisdom of the Sahāba, of the Tābi’ūn, of the Taba-i tābi’ūn, and of the religious imāms. Theirs was a wisdom that was suitable for the rules of the Sharī’at.

‘Aql-i saqīm:

The wisdom that is saqīm is quite the opposite. It errs in its acts and thoughts, which always incur sorrow, repentance, harm and trouble.

A’rāf:

The high parts of the barrier located between Paradise and Hell and which prevents them from affecting each other.

‘Arafāt:

The open space located 24 kilometers north of Mecca.

‘Ārif:

A great scholar who comprehended through his heart the knowledge about Allahu ta’ālā and His Attributes. For one to be an ’ārif, it is necessary to make progress and be promoted in the way of tasawwuf.

‘Arsh:

The end of matter bordering the seven skies and the Kursī, which is outside the seventh sky and inside the ‘Arsh.

As-hāb-i Kahf:

The seven Believers (in a cave in Tarsus) who attained high status because of emigrating to another place in order not to lose their faith when disbelievers invaded their land.

As-hāb-i Kirām:

A person who saw Hadrat Muhammad at least once when he was alive, is called a ‘Sahābī’. It goes without saying that a Sahābī is a Muslim. Ashāb is the plural form of Sahābī. All the Sahābīs are called ‘Ashāb-i Kirām’. If a Muslim has seen the Prophet, or talked to him, at least once when the Prophet was alive, he is called Sahabī. Plural form of Sahabī is Sahāba or As’hāb. The word Sahāba-i Kirām includes all those great people each of whom has seen the Prophet at least once. The lowest of the Sahāba is much higher than the highest of other Muslims. If a person has not seen the Prophet but has seen or talked to one of the Sahāba at least once, he or she is called Tābi’. Its plural form is Tābi’īn. In other words, the Tābi’īn are the successors of the Sahāba. If a person has not seen any of the Sahāba but has seen at least one of the Tabi’īn, he or she is called Taba’ī Tābi’īn. The Sahāba, the Tābi’īn and the Taba’i tabi’īn altogether are called the Salaf-i Sālihin (the early savants).

‘Asr-i awwal:

The beginning of the time of the late afternoon namāz according to Imām-i Yūsuf and Imām-i Muhammad.

‘Asr-i thānī:

The beginning of the time of the late afternoon namāz according to Imām-i A’zam.

‘Asr as-Sa’āda:

The “Era of Prosperity,” the time when our Prophet lived.

A'ūdhu:

A’ūdhu billāhi min-ash-shaytānirrajīm (I seek refuge with Allah from the cursed Satan).

Awāmir-i Ashara:

The Ten Commandments which Allahu ta’ālā gave Mūsā (Moses ‘alaihissalām) on Mount Tur.

Awlā:

It means better.

Awliyā:

A person whom Allahu ta’ālā loves is called a walī. Awliyā’ is the plural form of walī, though we sometimes use the word for both singular and plural.

Awrat parts:

They are parts on one’s body which one must not open or show others and it is forbidden for others to see outside or during namāz. In Hanafī and Shāfi’ī Madhhabs a man’s awrat parts for namāz and at all times are between his navel and lower parts of his knees. The knees are awrat in Hanafī and the navel is awrat in Shāfi’ī. All parts of women, except their palms and faces, including their wrists, outer parts of their hands, hanging parts of their hair and under their feet are awrat for namāz, in Hanafī. There are also valuable books saying that outer parts of hands are not awrat. When alone and not performing namāz, it is fard for women to cover between their knees and navels, wājib to cover their backs and bellies, and adab to cover their other parts. It is harām in all the four Madhhabs for women to show nāmahram men and female non-Muslims their bodies other than their faces and inside and outside their hands, and for these people to look at them.”

Āyat (karīma): (pl. āyāt)

(1) a sign, a miracle; (2) a verse of the Qur’ān al-karīm. There are 6236 āyats in the Holy Koran.

Āyat-al-Kursī:

One of the āyats in the Qur’ān. It explains the greatness of Allahu ta’ālā and the fact that His power is infinite.

‘Ayn-ul-yaqīn:

Certainty coming from direct observation and seeing.

Azīmat:

The more meritorious and difficult ways in carrying out commandments, which Islam holds superior.

Azrā’il:

One of the four archangels, who takes the souls of human beings.

-B-

Balāghat-i ilāhī:

Divine Eloquence.

Bāligh:

A boy whose genitalia has started producing spermatozoa becomes a bāligh. When a girl first begins menstruating, she becomes a bāligha (adolescent). From that day forth, it is incumbent on them to observe the commandments and prohibitions of Islam. The age limit for them to be considered as such is 9 for girls and 12 for boys. A boy who has not had sperm yet and a girl who has not experienced menses are counted bāligh and bāligha once they are beyond the age of fifteen.

Banī Israil:

Sons of Israel; Israelites; Jews.

Barakah:

Abundance; blessing.

Basmala:

The Arabic phrase Bismillāhirrahmānirrahīm (In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful).

Bātil:

Invalid, wrong, vain.

Bātin:

Interior, hidden knowledge pertaining to the heart and soul; bātinī, of bātin.

Bātinī:

A follower of the Batiniyya heresy or Bātinism.

Bayyad-Allahu wajhah:

May Allahu ta’ālā make his face luminous.

Bid’at: (pl. bida’)

Heresy; a heretical conduct or belief. Bid’at means something that was concocted afterwards. They are things that had not existed during the time of our Prophet and his four caliphs “radiy-Allahu anhum” which were, afterwards, fabricated and done in the name of Islamic belief or worships. All bida’ are corrupt.

Bi’that:

The year in which Hadrat Muhammad “sall-Allahu alaihi wa sallam” was informed that he was the Prophet.

Bughd-i fillah:

To dislike for the sake of Allah.

Burāq:

The animal of Paradise which took Rasūlullah from Mecca to Jerusalem during the Mi’rāj event. It was white, very fast, sexless, smaller than a mule, and bigger than an ass.

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Dajjāl:

He will appear in the time period close to Doomsday. He will be an enemy of Islam commanding innumerable soldiers. He will kill Muslims and bring discomfort and disorder. After shedding much blood, he will be killed by Mahdī.

Dalālah:

Deviating, going astray; deviating from the true path which our master the Prophet and his Ashāb showed.

Dalk:

To rub the washed limbs gently with the palm or with a towel.

Dār-ul-Islam:


It refers to those countries where the Muslim law is in force.

Darūrat:

(1) Strong necessity, a samāwī (involuntary) reason that forces one to do something, that is, a situation which arises beyond one’s will, is called a darūrat; (2) an involuntary excuse such as the danger of dying or losing a limb, or severe pain. These excuses make it mubāh [allowed] to perform an act that is normally harām [forbidden] in Islam.

Dhāt:

Person, essence.

Dhikr:

Remembering, keeping in mind, Allahu ta’ālā every moment.

Dīn: (also Deen)

It means religion. It generally refers to Islam.

Du’ā:

Supplication, invocation. Human beings present their needs and requests to Allahu ta’ālā through du’ā.

-E-

Effendi:


A title given by the Ottoman State to statesman and especially to religious scholars; a form of address, meaning “Your Great Personage.”

Emān:

Pardon; protection; guarantee.

-F-

Faid:
(also fayz or fayd)

Outpouring that flow from the guide’s heart to a heart, which thus gains motion, cleanliness, and exaltation; ma’rifa.

Fāiz:
(or fāidh=interest)

A percentage of a sum of money loaned to someone or borrowed from someone, which is harām.

Fanā:

It means forgetting everything except Allahu ta’ālā.

Faqīh: (pl. fuqahā’)

‘Ālim of fiqh.

Faqīr:

(1) Form of introduction of oneself, meaning poor, humble servant in need of Mercy; (2) a poor Muslim who has more than his or her subsistence but less than nisāb.

Fard:

Obligatory; an obligation clearly commanded by Allahu ta’ālā in the Qur’ān al-karīm. It is a grave sin to omit a fard. When this commandment is incumbent on every individual Muslim, it is termed fard-i-’ayn. Otherwise, if all Muslims are absolved from a certain Islamic commandment when only one Muslim performs it, it is termed fard-i-kifāya.

Fāsid:

Wrong, invalid, null and void.

Fāsiq:

A Muslim who commits sins habitually and frankly.

Fātiha:

The first sūra in the Qur’ān al-kerīm. It is recited during every standing position when performing namāz. It is also recited for the souls of dead Muslims.

Fatwā:

It means communicating if something conforms or not with the Sharī’at. It is not a fatwā only to say “It conforms” or “It is not permissible.” It is necessary also to say from which book of fiqh and from which writing this answer has been derived. The fatwās that are not conformable with books of fiqh are wrong. It is not permissible to depend on them.

Fermān:

Command, especially given by the Ottoman Sultans.

Fiqh:

Jurisprudence; knowledge dealing with what Muslims must do and must not do, actions, deeds, ’ibādāt; rules pertaining to religious practices.

Fitna:

It means mischief, commotion, sedition, turmoil, chaos, instigation, etc. Any act, behaviour, statement, writing, article or attitude that would lead to harmful consequences is fitna, and therefore harām, even if it is done with good intentions apparently.

Fitra:

Alms that must be given when the month of Ramadān is over.

-G-

Ghaban fāhish:

(Being cheated much by buying at a) price higher than the current prices; an exorbitant price.

Ghayb:

The unseen; the unknown; not being present; hidden.

1. Things that are not communicated by Islam, by calculations, or by experiments;

2. Those things that cannot be known through the mind and sense organs but can be known only through prophets’ informing us about them, e.g., Allah’s Attributes, the Day of Judgement, resurrection after death, creatures’ assembling in the place of Mahshar, etc;

Having īmān in the ghayb is to confirm, that is, to accept and to approvingly believe in the religion which Rasūlullah communicated as the Prophet without consulting mind, experience, and philosophy to see whether it accords with them.

3. Things that are known by some creatures but not known by the others.

Ghazā:

A battle against non-Muslims to convert them to Islam; jihād.

Ghāzī:

A Muslim engaged in ghazā.

Ghinā’:

A human voice accompanied with instrumental music is called ghinā’ [that is, music].

Ghusl:

It is ritual washing. It is fard for every woman or man who is junub and for every woman after haid (menstruation) and nifās (puerperium, postnatal bleeding) to perform a ghusl when there is enough time to perform the time’s namāz before that namāz’s time expires.

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Hadīth (sharīf):

Any blessed word or tradition of Rasūlullah [the Messenger of Allah] “sall-Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam”.

Hadīth-i qudsī:

A hadīth inspired by Allahu ta’ālā but said by the Prophet.

Hadji:

A Muslim pilgrim.

Hadrat:

A title of respect used before the names of great people like prophets and Islamic scholars.

Haid:

Menstruation.

Hajj:

It is the pilgrimage to Mecca, performance of which once in one’s life time becomes fard under certain conditions and circumstances prescribed by the Islamic Sharī’at.

Hāl:

Continuous variation of the kashfs and manifestations that come to the heart.

Halāk:

Lexical meaning of halāk is destruction, perishing, exhaustion. In the context, it is used to mean “the measure of harm or danger which Islam dictated as a gauge whereby to decide about the step to be taken.”

Halāl:

Things that are not prohibited, or though prohibited, their prohibition has been abolished through one of the reasons which the Sharī’at accepts as an excuse, a hindrance, or a necessity, are called halāl.

Halwat:

Staying together at a lonely place.

Hamd-u thanā:

Thanking, praising, and lauding.

Hanafī:

(a member) of the madhhab founded by Imām-i A’zam.

Hanbalī:

(a member) of the madhhab founded by Imām-i Ahmad bin Hanbal.

Haqq-ul-yaqīn:

Certainty coming from experience.

Haraj:


When it is difficult to prevent something from hindering the doing of a fard or from causing a harām to be committed, the case is called haraj; difficulty.

Harām:

Prohibited, not permitted in Islam. It is a grave sin to commit a harām act.

Harbī: see zimmī.

Hāshā:

It means “Never!” This exclamation is used before saying a blasphemy.

Hāshiya:

Footnotes, annotation; explanatory notes written on the page margins of a book.

Hashr:

Assembling in the space of Arasāt after the Resurrection.

Hawā:

The things which the nafs loves; desires.

Hegira:

Hadrat Muhammad’s (‘alaihissalām) emigration from Mecca to Medina in 622; al-Hijra.

Hidāyah:

It has these senses: the true path, the righteous path, Islam. Its opposite is dalālah [going astray, deviating]. Hidāyah is to enter the right path after seeing right as right and wrong as wrong; it is to turn away from dalālah and wrong path, to have īmān, and to become a Muslim.

Hijrī:

Of the Hegira.

Hikmah: (1) prophethood; (2) useful knowledge; (3) word of wisdom; (4) a hidden cause, benefit; (5) the knowledge of fiqh, the knowledge pertaining to halāls and harāms; (6) ‘ilm-i ladun, spiritual knowledge; (7) the sunnat of our Prophet.

Hikmat-i amalī:

Ethics of Islam.

Hikmat-i nazarī:

Scientific knowledge.

Hubb-i fillah:

To love for the sake of Allah.

Hujrat as-Sa’āda:

The room where the graves of the Prophet and of his two immediate caliphs are.

-I-

‘Ibāda:
(pl. -āt)

An act of worship, rite; carrying out the rules of our religion as prescribed by it.

Ifrāt:

Too much of something.

Iftār:

The act of breaking a fast. Iftār is done when the sun sets.

Ihrām:

A special garment worn during the rites of pilgrimage in Mecca.

I’jāz-i ilāhī:

Divine Conciseness (of the Qur’ān al-karīm).

Ijmā’:

It means the consensus of the Sahaba. If something has not been communicated with consensus by the Sahaba, the consensus of the Tabi'un becomes ijma' for that thing. If it has not been communicated with consensus by the Tabi'un either, the consensus of the Taba at-Tabi'in becomes ijma' for it.

Ijtihād:

It means working with all one’s might, striving and taking pains. In other words, it is to strive to derive the rules to solve problems that have not been explained clearly and openly in the Qur’ān or in the hadīths by likening them to matters that have been explained clearly and in detail. This can be done only by our Prophet (sall Allahu ’alaihi wa sallam), by all his Ashāb, and from among other Muslims, by those who have been promoted to the grade of ijtihād; these exalted people are called Mujtahids.

Ikhlās:

Sincerity; doing all the good deeds and worships for the sake of Allahu ta’ālā and for the purpose of obtaining His love and pleasure.

Ilāh:

God. (God means ma’būd [that which, or who, is, or is to be, worshipped]. Anything which is worshipped is called a god. The name of Allahu ta’ālā is Allah, not God. There is no ilāh [god] besides Allahu ta’ālā. It would be a very vile mistake to say “God” instead of “Allah.”)

Ilhād:

Deviating from the right path.

‘Ilm:

Knowledge, science.

‘Ilm-i hāl book:

A book written for the religiously non-educated people and that briefly and clearly describes the knowledge of kalām, morals and fiqh which every Muslim must know and do.

‘Ilm-i Kalām:

This is the branch of knowledge that explains the Kalimat ash-shahādat and the six tenets of īmān relative to it.

‘Ilm-i Ladun:

It is the knowledge imparted by Allah without you making any effort. It is a kind of ghayb or secret knowledge.

‘Ilm-i Tasawwuf:

It explains the things to be done or avoided with the heart and the ways to purify the heart and the soul. This is also called ‘ilm-i akhlāq or ‘ilm-i ikhlās.

‘Ilm-ul-yaqīn:

Certainty coming from knowledge.

Īmā:

It means making signs with one’s head instead of making ruku’ and sajda (when there is an excuse prescribed by our religion). Those who perform namāz by īmā bend a little for the ruku’ and again bend even more for the sajda.

Imām: (pl. a’imma)

(1) Profound savant; Imām-al-Madhhab, leader, founder of a Madhhab; twelve a’imma (imāms), three male members of the Ahl-i bayt and their nine successors; Imām-i a’zam (the greatest leader), title of Abū Hanīfa, leader of the Hanafī Madhhab. (2) Leader in public salāt (namāz in jamā’at).

Imāmayn:

The two imāms, namely, Imām-i Muhammad and Imām-i Abū Yūsuf.

Īmān:

Belief; faith; īmān means believing in the six fundamental principles of faith (Āmantu) along with all the commandments and prohibitions revealed to Hadrat Muhammad by Allahu ta’ālā and delivered by him to us, and stating this belief with the tongue.

Imsāk:

It is the time when fasting begins. Imsāk is the time when the whiteness appears on any place on the horizon. Six to ten minutes after imsāk time, when the whiteness has spread over the horizon like a thread, the time of morning namāz starts.

Inābat:

Repenting for having sinned. It has been used to mean to get attached and to adapt oneself to an Islamic savant.

Inshā-Allah:

It means “If Allah wills.”

Iqāmat:

The words recited while standing before beginning one of the five daily fard namāzes.

Irāda-i juz’iyya:

Partial will.

Irshād:

Enlightenment; guiding; inspiring.

Isha-i awwal:

The beginning of the time for Salat al-Isha according to Imam-i Muhammad and Imam-i Abu Yusuf.

Isha-i thani:

The beginning of the time for Salat al-Isha according to Imam-i A'zam.

Ishrāq:

The time when the lower edge of the Sun is as high as the length of a spear from the line of the apparent horizon.

Ism-i A’zam:

It is a Name of Allahu ta’ālā which He likes best among His Names which He has communicated. He will positively accept a prayer sent by mentioning this Name. We do not know this Name.

Isrāf:

Spending or using wastefully.

Istibrā:

Lexical meaning of “istibrā” is to exert yourself, to free yourself from something disagreeable or impure. In the Islamic branch of fiqh, it means “after urination, to make sure that there is no urine left in the urethra lest it should drop into your pants afterwards and dirty them and break your ablution.” Istibrā is done by gently squeezing urine drops out of the penis, by walking up and down for a while (about twenty minutes), or by lying on your left-hand side for a while. Istibrā has yet another meaning in the branch of fiqh, used in matters pertaining to conjugal relationships.

Istidlāl:

It means inferring the existence of the doer of the work by seeing the work, that is, to know the existence of the Creator by seeing creatures.

Istidrāj:

Allah’s inciting a sinner to perdition by granting that person success.

Istighfār:

Seeking forgiveness from Allahu ta’ālā; prayer for repentance; prescribed prayer recited in order to entreat Allahu ta’ālā for forgiveness.

Istihāda:

Excuse; flux of blood from a woman other than catamenia and lochia. Istihāda does not prevent the performance of either namāz or fast.

Istikhāra: see salāt of istikhāra.

Istinbāt:


It means extracting the essence of something.

Īthār:

Giving precedence to others despite your own acute needs and necessities.

I’tiqād:

Īmān; the tenets to be believed.

I’tiqāf:

Retreat, religious seclusion during Ramadān.

‘Iyd:

One of the two Islamic festivals.

‘Izzat:

Superiority, honor, and glory.

Izār:

An outer garment worn below the waist.

-J-

Jāiz:


Permitted, permissible.

Jalsa:

Sitting for a while between the two sajdas.

Jamā’at:

A congregation of Muslims who perform namāz together adapting themselves to the movements of the imām, the person who is staying in the front.

Janābat:

The state of being junub; impurity caused by sexual intercourse or by the flow of semen.

Janāza:

Funeral.

Jannat:

Paradise.

Jāriya:

A woman slave captured in a holy war.

Jazm:

It means not adding a vowel to a final consonant.

Jihād:

War against non-Muslims (or the nafs) to convert them (it) to Islam. Jihād means amr-i-ma’rūf and nahy-i-’an-il-munkar. The former means “introducing Islam to disbelievers, and thereby rescuing them from the blight of disbelief,” and the latter means teaching Muslims Islam’s practices, and thereby protecting them from committing Islam’s prohibitions.” There are three ways of performing either one of these two duties (of jihād). The first way is to do it physically, or in clearer terms, to perform jihād by employing all sorts of weaponry; this sort of jihād is conducted against dictators and imperialistic powers for the purpose of eliminating their obstructive policies over hapless masses of people who have fallen into the pit of disbelief as a result of being unaware of Islam or blindly following others or living under tyranny, oppression, persecution, exploitation, or misguidance. This type of jihād is done only by Islamic states or by their armies. It is never permissible for any individual Muslim to attack and rob any disbeliever without the prior order, permission, and knowledge of an Islamic state. The second way of Islamic jihād is to exploit all sorts of means of communication to spread Islam and to announce it to humanity. This type of jihād is done only by Islamic scholars with the help and under the control of Islamic states. The third way of jihād is to do it through prayer [supplication]. It is “fard-i-‘ayn,” or in other words, it is a must duty for every Muslim to perform this type of jihād. Not performing this type of jihād is a grave sin. Performing this third type of jihād is done by praying for those who perform the first two types of jihād. Those who are doing the first two types of jihād are in need of the prayers of those who are not actively participating in the first two types of jihād. All prayers performed with sincerity will surely be accepted.

Jizya:

The tax which disbelievers under Muslim control pay to a Muslim government. Allahu ta’ālā commands the jizya in the Qur’ān in order to disgrace disbelief.

Junub:

A person who needs a ghusl. What causes a person to become junub is prescribed by Islam.

-K-

Kā’ba:


The big structure in the great mosque in Mecca.

Kāfir:

Islam divides people into two groups: (1) Muslims; (2) Those who are not Muslims. People who are not Muslims are called disbelievers (kāfir) or non-Muslims.

Disbelievers in turn are divided into two groups: (1) Disbelievers with a holy book; (2) Disbelievers without a holy book. Christians and Jews are disbelievers with a holy book. But atheists, polytheists, Buddhists, Zoroastrians, and those who follow other religions are called disbelievers without a holy book. All disbelievers, those with a holy book and those without a holy book alike, will go to Jahannam.

Kalimat:

Word or statement.

Kalima-i shahādat:

It is the statement “Ash-hadu an lā ilāha ill-Allah wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ’abduhū wa rasūluh.” It is the first of the five fundamentals of Islam; declaring one’s belief in Islam.

It means: “There is no ilāh (being to be worshipped) except Allah; and Muhammad (‘alaihis-salām) is His born slave and His Messenger whom He has sent to (guide) all humanity.”

Kalimat at-tawhīd:

It is the statement “Lā ilāha ill-Allah Muhammadun Rasūl-Allah.” It means “There is no ilāh except Allah and Muhammad (‘alaihis-salām) is His Messenger.

Kāmil:


Perfect.

Karāhat time:

The time wherein it is not permissible to perform namāz.

Karamah (pl. karamat):

Phenomena which happen beyond the laws of causation through the awliyā of the ummats of prophets are called karāmat.

Kashf:

Manifestation, appearance of Allahu ta’ālā’s Attributes.

Khair:

Good, goodness.

Khalīfa: (pl. khulafā’)

Caliph.

Khārijīs:
(also Khārijites, Khawārij)

Those heretics who are hostile to Ahl al-Bait and to their posterity.

Khatm:

It is to read the Qur’ān al-karīm from beginning to end. There is much thawāb in it, especially in the holy month of Ramadān.

Khatm-i tahlīl:

Saying “Lā ilāha ill-Allah” seventy thousand times.

Khawf:

Fear.

Khodja:

Master (especially in a religious school); a person who leads people in religious affairs.

Khushū’:

Deep and humble reverence.

Khutba:

Sermon, the speech made in the mosque by the īmām during Friday namāz or ’iyd namāz.

Kufr:

Disbelief, blasphemy; to disbelieve, to reject those matters that must be known and believed in indispensably in Islam and those Islamic rules that have been communicated through tawātur (consensus); not to accept a commonly known Islamic rule.

There are three types of kufr (disbelief):

Kufr-i jahlī (Disbelief out of ignorance):

This is the disbelief of those who have not heard (about a certain Islamic tenet) and do not think about it.

Kufr-i juhūdī (Disbelief out of obstinacy):

People who are in this group choose disbelief knowingly either because they are fond of worldly ranks or they are haughty or they are afraid that people may despise them when they convert to a new religion. It is kufr-i juhūdī to deny Islam’s rules or to despise them or Islamic scholars. For example, Pharaoh and his companions had this type of disbelief.

Kufr-i hukmī (Disbelief by judgement):

A person who says or does something which Islam dictates as a sign of disbelief will become a disbeliever even though he or she really believes by heart and professes to be a Muslim. It is kufr to mock, to insult, or to despise anything which Islam holds valuable and precious. Anyone who says something which is not worthy of Allahu ta’ālā becomes a disbeliever.

Kutub-i Sitta:

Of the Hadīth books that have been unanimously confirmed to be correct by all Islamic savants, six have become famous all over the world. These six books are called Kutub-i Sitta. It is stated in ijmā’ (unanimity of scholars) that the hadīth-i sharīfs in these books are sahīh.

-L-

Lā-madhhabī:

A person who does not follow any of the four true madhhabs.

Lawh-i Mahfūz:

In pre-eternity, Allahu ta’ālā knew everything that would happen in the world. He explains His knowledge of eternity and His eternal Word to angels at a place called Lawh-i mahfūz. Angels do what they learn from the Lawh-i mahfūz.

Leave a namāz to qadā:

To postpone a namāz till after its prescribed time is over.

-M-

Ma’āl:


The explanations given for the āyats under the light of tafsīrs written by tafsīr scholars.

Madhhab (pl. madhāhib):

All of what a profound ’ālim of (especially) fiqh (usually one of the four — Hanafī, Shafi’ī, Mālikī, Hanbalī) or īmān (one of the two, namely Ash’arī, Māturīdī) communicated.

Madīnat al-Munawwara:

The illuminated city of Medina.

Mahdī:

In the time period close to Dommsday, Hadrat al-Mahdī will appear. He will be a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad (‘alaihis-salām). His name will be Muhammad and his father’s name will be ‘Abdullah. He will preside over Muslims, strengthen Islam and spread it everywhere. He will meet ‘Īsā (‘alaihis-salām), and together they will fight and kill ad-Dajjāl. During his time, Muslims will settle everywhere and live in comfort and ease.

Mahr:

According to Islam, the mahr comprises things like gold, silver, banknotes, or any kind of property or any kind of benefit that is given by a man to the woman he is to marry.

Mahram:

Within forbidden (harām) degrees of relationship for marriage; one of the eighteen women whom the Sharī’at has prescribed as a man’s close relatives, and vice versa.

Mahshar:

The place of gathering for judgement in the Hereafter.

Mā-i musta’mal:

Water that has been used for ghusl or ablution.

Make iāda:

To perform a namāz for the second time for any reason whatsoever.

Make jam’:

To perform the early and late afternoon prayers or the evening and night prayers one immediately after the other within the time prescribed for either one of them.

Make khilāl:

To comb with fingers; insert one or more fingers to wash or moisten; takhlīl.

Make niyyat:


To intend by heart.

Makkat al-Mukarrama:

The honored city of Mecca.

Makrūh:

Acts, things that are improper, disliked, or abstained by our Master the Prophet. There are two kinds of makrūh:

Makrūh tahrīmī:

Makrūh tahrīmī is the omission of a wājib, and it is close to harām. It is a venial sin to do an act which has been declared to be makrūh tahrīmī.

Makrūh tanzīhī:

Makrūh tanzīhī is an act that has been declared to be close to halāl, or an act that is better for you not to do it than to do it. Omitting the acts that are sunnat-i ghayr-i muakkada or mustahab is makrūh tanzīhī.

Mālikī:

(a member) of the madhhab founded by Imām-i Mālik.

Mandūb:

An act for which there is thawāb [blessing] and if omitted there is no sin.

Mansūkh:

Some āyats were abrogated by some other āyats that descended later. The former are called mansūkh, which means ‘‘abrogated.’’ The latter are called nāsikh, which means ‘‘the one that has abrogated the other.’’ The āyat about wine is an example.

Ma’rifa:

Knowledge pertaining to Allahu ta’ālā’s Dhāt [Person] and Attributes. Religious knowledge that cannot be comprehended through the five senses or through the intellect can be learned from the Prophet’s words. Within religious information there is such knowledge which cannot be recorded in books or which cannot be explained through words. No words can be found to explain them. They are called ma’rifats. The owner of these ma’rifats is called “Murshid.” They can be obtained only as a result of flowing from the murshid’s heart or from the dead ones’ souls into the hearts of those who desire them. There are some conditions to be fulfilled for attaining this.

Ma’rūf:

Good acts approved by Islam.

Masah:

Rubbing your wet hands gently.

Masbūk:

A person who has not caught up with the imām in the first rak’at.

Mashrū’at:

Things that Muslims are commanded to do.

Masjid:

Mosque.

Masts: (also mests, khuffs)

Waterproof shoes covering the part of the foot which is fard to wash (in ablution).

Ma’siyyat:

Sinful actions.

Mawlā:

(1) It means helper and protector. It refers to Allahu ta’ālā; (2) the one who is loved; beloved; (3) the owner, the master of a slave who has not been freed; (4) a slave who has been freed; (5) a person who has freed his or her slave.

Mawlid:

The Prophet’s birthday; writings that describe the superiorities and excellences of the Prophet.

Mazy: (also mazī)

A few drops of white fluid liquid that comes out when one is aroused.

Mihrāb:

It is a niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla.

Minbar:

The high pulpit in a mosque climbed wit stairs where the khutba is performed.

Mi’rāj:

The Prophet’s ascension from Jerusalem to the heavens.

Mīzān:

In the Hereafter, there will be a Mīzān, “balance”, for weighing deeds and conduct. It does not resemble worldly balances.

Muadhdhin:

A person who calls the adhān.

Muakkad sunnat: see sunnat-i muakkada.

Mubāh:

Permissible; a thing, action permitted in Islam; an act neither ordered nor prohibited. Things that are mubāh earn you sins or thawāb depending on the intention of a person who does them.

Mubāhala:

When two persons do not believe each other, they say, “May Allah curse the one among us who is lying.” This process is termed mubāhala.

Mufassir:

Expert ‘ālim of tafsīr.

Mufsid:

Act, thing that nullifies (especially namāz).

Muftabih qawl:

The report preferred as the fatwā from among the various ijtihāds of mujtahid scholars.

Muftī:

Great ‘ālim authorized to issue fatwa.

Muhabbat-i zātiyya:

Love for only Allah without including His Attributes. Divine love is love for Allah together with His Attributes.

Muhdis:

a Muslim who does not have an ablution.

Mujaddid:

Restorer; Hadrat Muhammad informed that every hundred years there will be an Islamic savant restoring Islam.

Mujāhada:

It means to struggle against the nafs; to do what the nafs dislikes,

Mu’jizah (pl. mu'jizat):

Phenomena that happen from prophets beyond the Divine laws of causation but within the Divine power are called mu’jiza. Prophets have to exhibit mu’jizas.

Mujtahid:

Great ‘ālim capable of employing ijtihād.

Mukhlās:

Owners of permanent ikhlās.

Mukhlis:

Those who have inconstant ikhlās and who strive to obtain ikhlās.

Mulaffiq:

A person who looks for and gathers the facilities of the four madhhabs.

Mulhid:

A person who goes out of Islam by giving wrong meanings to āyat-i-karīmas and hadīth-i-sharifs, that is, whose īmān is corrupt, is called a mulhid.

Mulk-i habis:

If you mix all of the harām goods taken from various people with one another or with your own property or with the things entrusted to you, and if you cannot easily distinguish the harām ones from the others, this mixture becomes your own property. This mixture is called mulk-i habis (tainted property).

Mu’min:

Believer, Muslim.

Munāfiq:

Hypocrite; a person who pretends to be a Muslim though being a disbeliever.

Munazzah:

Free from any unworthy thing.

Muqīm:

It means “settled.” A person who is settled in a place where he was born or got married or where he established his home with the intention of living there permanently, or a person who intends to stay at a place which is 104 km or more away for continuously fifteen days or more, excluding the days of arrival and departure.

Murshid:

Guide, director; an ‘ālim and a walī person who trains people in order for them to be good Muslims.

Murshid al-kāmil:

A great guide who has attained perfection and can make others attain it.

Murtad:

Renegade, apostate; a person who abandons Islam, though previously being a follower of it. Such a person becomes a kāfir.

Musāfir: (safarī)

Being safarī or musāfir means being a traveler. If a person intends to go to a place that would take three days by the short days of year by walking or by riding a camel during the short days of the year, he becomes a musāfir as soon as he reaches beyond the last houses of the place he lives in or on one or both sides of his way.

Mushabbiha:

Those who believe Allahu ta’ālā to be a material being.

Mus-haf:

It is the state of the Qur'an collected between two covers with the style as starting from the chapter Fātiha and ending with the chapter Nās.

Mustahab:

An act for which there is thawāb (blessing) and if omitted there is no sin.

Musta’mal water:

Water used for the ghusl or ablution.

Mutashābih:

(of an āyat or hadīth) with unintelligible, hidden meaning.

Mu’tazila:

One of the 72 heretical groups in Islam.

Muttaqī:

One who fears Allahu ta’ālā and abstains from sinful things.

Muwālāt:

Quickness; to wash the limbs one right after another.

Muzdalifa:

The area between the city of Mecca and ‘Arafāt.

-N-

Nabī:

A prophet who did not bring a new religion but invited people to the previous one.

Nāfila:

Acts of worship that are supererogatory, optional, and non-compulsory in contrast to fards and wājibs. They are highly recommended and bring much thawāb.

Nafs:

(1) A negative force within humans that prompts them to do evil; (2) a soul; (3) self, an individual, the flesh.

Nafs-i ammāra:

Headstrong nafs.

Nafy:

To dispel the thought of creatures from the heart.

Nahy-i-ani-l-munkar:

To prevent, to debar people from sins and evil deeds.

Najāsat:

Substances which Islam prescribes as dirty.

Najs:

Religiously dirty.

Nā-mahram:

Within permitted degrees of relationship for marriage; not one of the eighteen women whom the Sharī’at has prescribed as a man’s close relatives, and vice versa.

Namāz:

Salāt, ritual prayer. It is the second of the five fundamentals of Islam.

Naql:

Conveying Islamic tenets, both pertaining to belief and practice, communicated by Islamic scholars without making any changes.

Nashr:

Dispersing after the settling of accounts to go into Paradise or Hell.

Nass: (pl. nusūs)

General term for āyats and hadīths.

Nifāq:

Faction.

Nifās:

Postnatal bleeding, lochia.

Nikāh:

Marriage contract made in accordance with Islam.

Nisāb:

Nisāb means border. The border between richness and poverty prescribed by Islam is termed nisāb. It is the minimum quantity of specified wealth making one liable to do certain duties.

Niyyat:

Intention.

Nūr:

(1) Light, halo; (2) the Noble Qur’an; (3) īmān; (4) one of the 99 Beautiful Names of Allah.

-Q-

Qadā’:

Not to perform acts of worship in their due times but to perform them after their due times are over. A namaz of qadā is the one which is performed after its prescribed time. It is fard to make qadā of a fard, and it is wājib to make qadā of a wājib.

Qadā’:

The [instance of] creation of anything just compatibly with qadar.

Qa’da-i ākhira:

Last sitting in a namāz.

Qa’da-i ūlā:

First sitting in a namāz that contain three or four rak’ats.

Qadar:

Allahu ta’ālā’s predestination in eternity of things that have been and will be created from eternity in the past to the everlasting future.

Qādi:

A judge ruling in accordance with the Islamic religious law.

Qawl:

A mujtahid scholar’s conclusion, ijtihād for the solution of a religious matter.

Qawma:

Standing upright and motionless after ruku’.

Qibla:

The direction a Muslim turns when performing namāz, the direction pointing to Kā’ba.

Qirāat:

Standing and reciting the Qur’ān when performing namāz; recitation.

Qirāat-i Shāzza:

The Qur’ān which follows the rules of Arabic grammar and which does not change the meaning, but which is unlike the one that was collected together by Hadrat ‘Uthman. It is not permissible to read it during namāz or at any other place; it is a sin.

Qiyām:

Standing position in namāz.

Qiyās:

(conclusion drawn by a mujtahid through) likening or comparing a matter not clearly stated in the Nass [āyats and hadīths] and ijmā’ to a similar one stated clearly.

Qiyāma:

The end of the world; Resurrection; Doomsday.

(1) After Isrāfil’s (‘alaihis-salām) sounding the last trump called Sūr (and something we do not know its true nature) with the command of Allahu ta’ālā, all beings will die and everything will be annihilated. The order and the system in the universe will be dissolved. This time is called Qiyāma, the end of the world.

(2) After all beings have died and the order in the universe has been dissolved, Isrāfīl (‘alaihis-salām) will sound the Sūr again with the command of Allahu ta’ālā. Then all the dead will rise up from their graves and will gather at the place of Arasat. There will be questioning and settlement of accounts on every action. Then they will go to either Jannat or Jahannam. This time, too, is called the Day of Qiyāma (Resurrection).

Quddisa sirruh:

Used for scholars and other notable personalities in Islam in the meaning of “May Allahu ta’ālā make his secret very sacred.”

Qur’ān al-karīm:

The Holy Koran.

Qurbān:

(1) Sacrifice; (2) the animal to be slaughtered.

Qurbat:

If you do a tā’at knowing that you do it for Allah’s sake, it is called qurbat.

-R-

Rabb:

It refers to Allahu ta’ālā, meaning the One who creates, educates, and brings up everything.

Radīy-Allahu ‘anh:

Used for any righteous and noble male companions of the Prophet in the meaning of “May Allah be pleased with him.’’

Rajā’:

Hope.

Rak’at:

Units of namāz each of which comprises the actions of standing, bowing and two times prostration.

Ramadān:

The sacred month in Muslim calendar.

Rasūl:

A prophet who brought a new religion.

Rasūlullah:
(Rasūl-Allah)

Muhammad (alaihis-salām), the Prophet of Allahu ta’ālā; the Messenger of Allah.

Rawdat al-Mutahhara:

The space between the Prophet’s shrine and the pulpit of the Masjid ash-sharīf.

Ribā:
Charging or paying interest.

Riyāda: (pl. -at)

Mortification; not doing what the nafs likes.

Rizq:

Sustenance.

Rukhsat:

Permission; the easy way in carrying out a fard or avoiding a harām.

Rukn:

The fards in namāz are called rukn. Recitation of an āyat, the ruku’, the two sajdas and sitting in the last rak’at are each a rukn.

Ruku’:

Bowing by putting hands on the knees.

-S-

Safar:


Travel.

Safarī:
(also see musāfir)

Traveler.

Sahāba: (see Ashāb-i Kirām)

Sahar:

The time of sahar is the final one-sixth of the night [i.e., (of the time) from canonical sunset to the time of imsāk].

Sahīh:

(1) religiously lawful, valid; congruous to Islam; (2) (of a hadīth) soundly transmitted, authentic according to the conditions laid by the scholars of hadīth.

Sahūr:

The time when you get up to eat meal before beginning the fast.

Sajda:

Prostration.

Sajda-i sahw:

Two sajdas (prostrations) done as soon as namāz is over in order to have some errors that may have been done while performing namāz forgiven.

Sajda-i tilāwat:

Prostration after the recitation of certain verses in the Qur’ān al-karīm.

Salaf-i Sālihīn: (also see Ashāb-i Kirām for further information)

The Sahāba, the Tābi’ūn, and the Taba-i tābi’ūn are called the Salaf-i Sālihīn.

Salām:

(1) greeting; (2) saying “Assalām-u ‘alaikum wa rahmat-ullah” at the end of a namāz.

Salāt:

(1) prayer; (with salām) =salawāt; (2) namāz.

Salāt of istikhāra:

A namāz performed to seek Allahu ta’ālā’s guidance when one is unsure about a decision.

Salawāt: (pl. of salāt)

Special prayers in which blessings and high ranks invoked on the Prophet (‘alaihis-salām).

Sālih: (pl. sulahā’)

One who is pious and abstains from sins.

Sallallahu ‘alaihi wa ālihī wa sallam:

Used exclusively after the name of Hadrat Muhammad in the meaning of ‘‘May blessings of Allahu ta’ālā be upon him and his family.’’

Samāwī:

Involuntary.

Sayr-i āfāqī:

“Āfāq” means “outside a person.” Sayr-i āfāqī means one’s making progress outside oneself.

Sayr-i anfusī:

“Sayr” means “to go, to make progress.” “Anfus” means “inside a person.” “Sayr-i anfusī” means “one’s progress inside oneself.”

Sayyid:

Title given to the Prophet’s descendants. When they are through Hadrat Husayn, Hadrad Ali’s second son, they are called Sayyid, and when they are through Hadrat Hasan, Hadrat Ali’s elder son, they are called Sharīf.

Shad:

It means (in Arabic) to soundly fasten something with a wire.

Shafā’at:

Intercession.

Shāfi’ī:

(a member) of the madhhab founded by Imām-i Shāfi’ī.

Shaikhayn:

Imām-i A’zam and Imām-i Abū Yūsuf. In another register of Islamic nomenclature, e.g., when matters concerning the Sahāba are being dealt with, “Shaikhayn” means Hadrat Abū Bakr as-Siddīq and Hadrat ‘Umar-ul-Fārūq.

Shaikh-ul-Islām:

The chief religious official during the Ottoman State.

Sharh:

Explanation, commentary; to expound, to give the detailed explanation of a text in a book word by word.

Shar’ī:

Of, relating to, required by, or conforming to the Shari’a, Islam.

Shari’at

Divine rules that were sent to prophets; religion; Islam.

Sharr:

Evil.

Shaitān:

Satan.

Shī’ites:

One of the 72 non-Sunnī groups in Islam.

Shirk: (polytheism)

Considering anyone god other than Allah or associating partners with Him or giving His attributes to others besides Him.

Shuhūd:

It means seeing. When devotees make progress on the path of tasawwuf, they see various grades through their hearts and souls. This seeing is called shuhūd.

Sidrat-ul-Muntahā:

It is a tree situated on the seventh sky near the Arsh. There are different reports on it.

Silsila-i ‘Aliyya:

It is the chain of Islamic savants beginning with our Prophet up to today, each of whom saw the one previous to him, and followed his path, footsteps.

Simā’:

A voice without instrumental music is called simā’.

Sirāt:

The Bridge in the Hereafter.

Sūfī:

One who has trained and has become perfect on the way of tasawwuf.

Sufiyya-i ‘Aliyya:

Great men of tasawwuf.

Suhbah: (also sohbah)

Companionship; to make friends, to stay together for a long time; to talk to one another and to drive use from one another.

Sultān:

A Muslim ruler in the past.

Sunnat (=Sunnah):

Act, thing, though not commanded by Allahu ta’ālā, done and liked by the Prophet (‘alaihissalām) as an ’ibāda; there is thawāb if done, but no sin if omitted, yet it is a sin if continually omitted and disbelief if despised;

Sunnat-i ghayr-i muakkada:

Unemphatic, omitted from time to time by our blessed Prophet.

Sunnat-i kifāya:

They are the sunnats which lapse from other Muslims if they are done by a few Muslims.

Sunnat-i muakkada (=Sunnat-i hudā):

Emphatic, practised regularly by our blessed Prophet. They are the shi’ār (symptoms) of the Islamic religion. [That is, they are peculiar to Islam; they do not exist in other religions.]

Sunnat-i zawāid:

Things which Rasūlullah (sallallahu ’alaihi wa sallam) has done continuously not as ’ibādat (worship) but as ’ādat (custom) are called sunnat-i zawāid.

Sunnī:

(one) belonging to Ahl as-Sunna.

Sūra(t):

A chapter of the Qur’ān al-karīm.

-T-

Taannī:

Opposite of hastiness.

Tā’at:

Those actions which Allahu ta’ālā likes, such as giving alms. These are also called “hasana.” He has promised that He will give “ajr,” that is, thawāb (blessings) to a Muslim who performs tā’at. When the tā’ats are done without an intention or intended for Allah’s sake, blessings are given. When one does a tā’at, it will be accepted whether one knows or not that one is doing it for Allah’s sake.

Taba’at Tābi’īn:

Those who had seen neither the Prophet "alaihis-salam" nor a Sahābī but saw (one of) the Tābi’ūn; so their successors.

Tābi’īn:

Those Muslims who had not seen the Prophet but saw (one of) the Ashāb-i Kirām; so their successors.

Tab’an makrūh:

That which is repugnant to the human nature.

Tadbīb:

To wind a band or something wide and flat like the sliding iron bolt of a door around an object.

Ta’dīl-i-arkān:

To remain motionless for a while after becoming calm at five places in namāz, namely, at ruku’, at two sajdas, at qawma, and at jalsa.

Tafrīt:

Too little of something.

Tafsīr:

It means understanding murād-i ilāhī (divine purpose) from the āyats in the Qur’ān al-karīm. He who does tafsīr is called a mufassir. Mufassir does not mean a person who writes books of tafsīr. Mufassir is a person who understands what Allahu ta’ālā means by His Word. Tafsīr is only the information that comes from Rasūlullah’s (sall-Allahu ’alaihi wa sallam) blessed speech to the Sahāba (ridwānullahi ta’ālā ’anhum ajma’īn), thence to the Tābi’ūn, thence to the Taba-i tābi’ūn, and thence, through the communication of such reliable and valuable people, to writers of books of tafsīr; to be more exact, to savants of fiqh and kalām. Any information other than this cannot be called tafsīr; it is called ta’wīl. Correctness of ta’wīls is assessed by measuring them with tafsīrs. If a ta’wīl contradicts a tafsīr, it is discarded. Those who wrote books of tafsīr accepted the sections that were tafsīrs as tafsīrs and the sections that were ta’wīls as tafsīrs again because they agreed with the tafsīr.

Taghannī:

To recite with a melodious voice. Taghannī falls into two categories as being sunnat and harām. The taghannī which is sunnat is to recite it compatibly with tajwīd. The latter, which is harām, is to resonate your voice in your larynx so as to produce various sounds, and it causes words to defile. It is not permissible to recite by making taghannī, that is, by defiling the words. As is seen, if saying the words melodiously does not defile their meanings, if the letters are not prolonged by a length of two letters, and if it is intended to beautify the voice and to embellish the recitation, it is permissible. In fact, it is mustahab to do so when performing namāz as well as when not performing namāz.

Tāghūt:

Satanic powers and beings that rebel against Allah’s commandments and prohibitions and prevent you from performing acts of worship.

Tajdīd:

Renewal.

Tajwīd:

The branch of knowledge teaching how to read the Qur’ān correctly.

Tahārat:

Cleaning private parts after urinating or defecating.

Takbīr:


It is the word “Allahu akbar.” It means “Allah is the greatest.”

Takbīr-i tashrīq:

According to the Imāmayn, from morning namāz on the ‘Arafa day, that is, the day preceding the ’Iyd of Qurbān, until late afternoon namāz on the fourth day, which amounts to twenty-three prayers of namāz in all, it is wājib for everyone, men and women alike, for hadjis and for those who are not making the hajj, for those who are performing namāz in jamā’at and for those who are performing it alone to say the Takbīr-i tashriq (Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar. Lā ilāha illallah. Wallahu akbar. Allahu akbar wa lillahil-hamd) once immediately after making the salām in any namāz that is fard or when making qadā of any fard namāz for the days of this ’Iyd. This (takbīr) is said after the namāz of Friday, too

Takbīr of iftitāh:

The takbīr said at the beginning of a namāz.

Takfīr:

Declaring a Muslim a kāfir.

Ta’khīr:

(when combining two namāzes) performing the earlier one of two namāzes in the time of the later one.

Takhlīl:

To comb with fingers; to insert one or more fingers to wash or moisten.

Talfīq:

Eclecticism; unification of madhhabs; collecting the permitted, easy things of madhhab.

Tama’:

Using forbidden means to obtain worldlies.

Taqdīm:

(when combining two namāzes) performing the later one of two namāzes in the time of the earlier one.

Taqdīth:

To declare to be without defects or faults.

Taqiyya:

It means saying or doing the opposite of what one has in one’s heart.

Taqwā:

Taqwā is to abstain from harāms by fearing Allahu ta’ālā.

Tarafayn:

Imām-i A’zam Abū Hanīfa and Imām-i Muhammad.

Tartīb:

Observing the prescribed order.

Tasawwuf: see ‘ilm-i tasawwuf.

Tasbīh:

Subhānallah, Alhamdulillah, Allahu akbar, 33 times each after five daily prayers. It is also used for only Subhānallah.

Tasfiya:

Purification in the heart.

Tashahhud:

In every sitting posture in namāz, sitting and reciting the prayer called “Attahiyyātu” or sitting as long as to recite the “Attahiyyātu.”

Taswīf:

Procrastination in performing pious deeds.

Tawakkul:

Trust in, expectation of everything from Allahu ta’ālā exclusively; expecting from Allahu ta’ālā the effectiveness of the cause [sabab] after working and holding on to the cause.

Tawātur:

State of being widespread, which is a document for authenticity and against denial.

Tawba:

(after committing a sin) to repent, to promise Allah not to do it again, to entreat Him for forgiveness. People do their tawba by themselves.

Tawhīd:

(belief in) the Oneness of Allahu ta’ālā.

Ta’wīl:

From among different senses of a word, ta’wīl is to choose the one that accords with Islam.

Tayammum:

It is a simple procedure you follow as a substitute for an ablution and ghusl and which is permissible in want of water. You do it by rubbing your arms and your face with your hands dusted with clean soil.

Ta’zīr:

General name for various types of punishment which the Islamic religion inflicts for some crimes.

Thawāb:

Muslims will be rewarded in the next world for all their pious actions which they have done in the world. The rewards which Muslims will be given in the next world are called “thawāb.” The word is used as an adjective as well as a noun. For example, when we say that an action is very thawāb, it means that Allah will give many rewards for that action and it is rewardful.

Tumānīnat:

Keeping all one’s limbs motionless in ruku’, in sajda, in qawma, and in jalsa.

-U-

'Udhr:


A good excuse; by an “udhr,” we mean a situation which Islam recognizes as an excuse that will absolve a Muslim from the responsibility of not performing an Islamic commandment. An excuse of this sort is termed ‘udhr.

Ummat:

The community, the body of Believers, of a prophet.

Umūm al-balwā:

A common plight, tribulation that plagues the masses.

‘Umra:

The performance of the tawāf and sā’i with the ihrām on and the shaving or cutting of the hair on any day of the year except the five days allotted for hajj. Doing ‘umra once in a lifetime is sunnat-i muakkada in the Madhhabs of Hanafī and Mālikī, while it is fard in the Madhhabs of Shāfi’ī and Hanbalī. The hajj which is fard is called hajj-i akbar [major pilgrimage]or hajjat-ul-Islam. ‘Umra is called hajj-i asghar [minor pilgrimage].

‘Ushr:

The zakāt of farm products is called ‘ushr. It is fard also to pay ‘ushr. Even a person in debt has to pay it.

Usūl-i fiqh:

The knowledge of usūl-i fiqh explains how learnings of fiqh are derived from āyats and hadīths.

-W-

Wadī:


Turbid white thick liquid that issues after urination.

Wahhābīs:

People in Arabia whose beliefs originate from the heresies of Ibn Taymiyya.

Wahy:

Divine revelation; Allah’s commands that come to prophets directly or through an angel. The entire Qur’ān is wahy that has come through the angel Jabrāīl (‘alaihissalām).

Wājib:

Essential, almost obligatory, almost as compulsory as fard, so not to be omitted; that never omitted by the Prophet. Allahu ta’ālā’s commandments that are not as clear as a fard, but are inferred through deduction are called wājib.

Walī: see awliyā.

Warā’:

To abstain from the dubious. [By dubious we mean the actions which we do not know for sure whether they are permitted or forbidden.]

Wasl:

It is to combine a final consonant with the vowel sound of the following word.

Waswasa:

Evil suggestions insinuated by the devil.

Watan:

The place where one is settled or where one has settled one’s home is called watan.

Watan-i aslī:

One’s real home.

Watan-i iqāmat:

One’s transient home.

Waty:

Sexual intercourse.

Wilāyat:

The grade reached by a Muslim who has managed the very hard job of adapting his every word, every action, and every thought to Islam. Such a person is called a “walī.”

Witr:

The namāz performed after the night namāz. It is wājib.

Wudū’:

Ablution.

-Y-

Yāddāsht:

To become accustomed to thinking of Allahu ta’ālā all the time. If one wants to think of anything besides Allahu ta’ālā, one will not be able to do it.

Yaqīn
:

Absolute belief; belief which is as positive as the conviction you feel when you have seen something you are to believe.

-Z-

Zāhid:

Those people who do not set their hearts on worldly possessions.

Zakāt:

To give every year a certain amount of one’s property to the people prescribed by the Qur’ān.

Zālim: pl. zālimīn

(1) cruel, a person who trespasses upon others’ property, rights; (2) a disbeliever who stubbornly keeps persisting in his/her disbelief.

Zawāl:

Midday; the time at which the Sun is at its highest point from the horizon and after which the time of early afternoon namāz begins.

Zimmī (or dhimmī):

The Islamic religion recognizes two kinds of countries in the world: (1) The Muslim country called “Dār-ul-Islām”; (2) The country of disbelievers called “Dār-ul-harb.” Those disbelievers who live in “Dār-ul-Islam” and who have submitted to pay the jizya, are called “ahl-i-zimmat” or “zimmī.” They live comfortably and peacefully possessing Muslims’ rights and freedom fully. They perform their worships freely. Those disbelievers who live in Dār-ul-harb and who are not under Islam’s authority are called Harbīs.

Zindiq:

An insidious enemy of religion; one who endeavors to defend and spread one’s own thoughts under the name of Islam, though they are, in fact, incompatible with Islam.

Zuhd:

To abstain from the majority of the mubāh for fear that they may be dubious.

Zulm: (also see zālim)

Injustice; to exceed the limit of justice; to infringe people’s rights.
 
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Date of Update
27 Žubat 2017 Pazartesi
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