THE THIRTY TWO AND FIFTY FOUR FARDS
When a child that reaches puberty or a kāfir [non-Muslim] says kalimat at-tawhīd [word of unity], that is (Lā ilāha illallah Muhammadun rasūlullah) [There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His Rasūl (messenger and prophet)] and if he knows and understands the meaning of this, he becomes a Muslim. All past sins of that kāfir are immediately forgiven. But, just like any Muslim, they should learn the six conditions of īmān as soon as there is an opportunity, that is, they must memorize and learn the meaning of (Āmantu) and believe in it and say (I believe in all of Islam, that is, I accept that all the commandments and prohibitions that Muhammad alaihis-salām declared came from Allahu taālā). Later, as soon as he has the opportunity, it is fard for him to learn what is fard (commanded by Allahu taālā) and what is harām (prohibited by Allahu taālā) among all habits and also among the actions relevant to him [things that he faces in his daily life and occupation]. He loses his īmān if he denies (fails to believe) that it is fard to learn about these or it is necessary to carry out the fards and to refrain from the harāms. If he does not approve and accept one of these things that he learns [i.e. commandments and prohibitions of Islam], he becomes murtad [renegade]. Murtad does not become a Muslim by saying only (Lā ilāha illallah) and by carrying out some of the orders of Islam such as performing salāt, fasting, performing Hajj, giving donations etc. He will not benefit from these at all in the afterlife. To become a Muslim again, he must repent for his denial of the specific issue in question.
Islamic scholars have selected [and separately listed] thirty two and fifty four of the fards that every Muslim should learn about, believe in, and obey.
The Thirty Two Fards
Conditions of īmān: Six (6)
Conditions of Islam: Five (5)
Fards of salāt: Twelve (12)
Fards of abdast: Four (4)
Fards of ghusl: Three (3)
Fards of tayammum: Two (2)
Some scholars said that tayammum has three fards. Then, the total of these would be thirty three fards.
Conditions of īmān (6)
1. To believe in the existence and the unity of Allahu taālā.
2- To believe in His malaks [angels].
3- To believe in the books sent by Allahu taālā.
4- To believe in the Nabees [Prophets] of Allahu taālā.
5- To believe in the day of Akhirat [the Hereafter; the endless (infinite) time that starts with the death of a person; this includes the life in the grave, the life in Qiyāmat (the Day of Judgment) after resurrection before going to Jannat or Jahannam, and the endless life in Jannat or Jahannam].
6- To believe in Qadar [destiny], and that khayrs [good things] and shars [bad things] come from Allahu taālā.
Conditions of Islam (5)
7- To say the kalimat ash-shahāda [word of witnessing: Ash-hadu an lā ilāha illallah wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasūluh. The meaning of this word of shahāda is: I know and believe as if I saw that there is no god, nobody besides Allahu taālā, whose existence is necessary and who deserves to be worshipped and obeyed. I know and believe as if I saw that Muhammad (alaihis-salām) is both a born servant and the Prophet of Allahu taālā.].
8- To perform each of the five salāts every day when its specified time arrives.
9- To give the zakāt of ones possessions.
10- To fast every day during the month of Ramadan.
11- To travel for Hajj once in a life time (for those who are able to).
Fards of Salāt (12)
A- External fards are seven. These are also called conditions [of salāt].
12- Tahārat [cleaning] from hadas [lack of abdast].
13- Tahārat [cleaning] from najāsat [dirts].
14- Satr-i awrat [covering of places of awrat].
15- Istiqbāl-i qibla [facing the qibla (direction of Kaaba)].
16- Wakt [prescribed time].
17- Niyyat [intention].
18- The takbīr of iftitah or tahrīma [saying Allahu-akbar at the beginning].
B- Internal fards are five. Each of these is called a rukn [a basic unit of salāt].
19- Qiyām [standing].
20- Qirāat [reciting].
21- Rukū [bending forward by putting the hands on the knees].
22- Sajda [prostrating, putting the forehead and the nose on the ground].
23- Qada-i ākhira [sitting at the end]
Fards of Abdast (4)
24- To wash the face during abdast.
25- To wash the hands [and the forearms up to and] including the elbows.
26- To make mash to [to wipe] one fourth of the head.
27- To wash the feet including the heels [and the ankles].
Fards of Ghusl (3)
28- To wash [the inside of the] mouth (mazmaza).
29- To wash [the inside of the] nose (istinshaq).
30- To wash the entire body.
Fards of Tayammum (2)
31- To make niyyat [to decide] to clean up from being junub or lack of abdast.
32- To tap [to hit] clean soil with both hands, and to make mash [wiping, rubbing] to the face, and then to tap clean soil again with both hands, and finally to rub both arms from the elbows to the palms.
The Fifty Four Fards
1. To believe in the unity of Allahu taālā [that is, He is one, He has no partners, there is no god but Allah].
2. To eat and drink halāl [permitted sustenance] only.
3. To make abdast.
4. To perform the five daily salāts.
5. To make ghusl after becoming junub.
6. To believe that rizq is from Allahu taālā.
7. To wear clean and halāl clothes.
8. To have tawakkul [trust, faith, confidence] in Hak [Allah].
9. To be contented [with what one has earned, not to be covetous].
10. To make shukr [to thank] Allahu taālā for the nemats [benefactions, blessings] He has given.
11. To be accepting of qadā [Allahu taālās will].
12. To have patience for mishaps [to endure calamities without complaining].
13. To repent [to make tawba] for sins.
14. To make ibādats [worship] only for Allahu taālās approval.
15. To know that shaytan [satan] is an enemy.
16. To willingly accept the decrees of Qurān al-karīm.
17. To accept that death is hak [true and right].
18. To be friends with Allahu taālās friends, and to be enemies to Allahu taālās enemies.
19. To be kind [to do kindnesses] to ones father and mother.
20. To encourage [to teach and help spread] marufs [good deeds] and to discourage [to prevent and advise against] munkars [sins].
21. To visit relatives.
22. Not to betray an amanat [something entrusted to him for safekeeping].
23. To always fear Allahu taālā, and to abandon wildness (arrogance and unbounded, excessive actions).
24. To obey Allah and His Rasūl.
25. To refrain from sins, to do ibādats.
26. To obey Muslim administrators.
27. To contemplate the world and heed the lessons hidden in the creation.
28. To ponder the existence of Allahu taālā.
29. To protect ones tongue [language] from obscene words.
30. To keep the heart clean and pure.
31. Not to mock anybody.
32. Not to look at harām [i.e. at things that are harām to look at].
33. A mumin [believer] must always keep his word.
34. Protect ones ear from listening to munkarat [munkars, forbidden things].
35. To learn ilm [religious knowledge].
36. To use measurement and weighing devices honestly.
37. Never to be sure of safety from Allahs azab [punishment], to always have fear.
38. To give zakāt to poor Muslims and to help them.
39. Never loose hope for Allahs rahmat [mercy and forgiveness].
40. Not to obey nafss desires. [Nafs is the self that is the source of all bad desires.]
41. To feed people for Allahu taālās approval.
42. To work for a living, sufficient rizq [sustenance, food, water, clothes, and shelter].
43. To give the zakāt [one fortieth] of ones possessions [money, gold, silver, commodities for trade, and four-legged animals such as cattle] and the ushr [one tenth] of the crops.
44. Refrain from intercourse with his wife during her [monthly] period or during lohusa [after child birth] state.
45. To cleanse ones heart from sins.
46. To avoid being conceited.
47. To protect the possessions of an orphan that has not reached puberty.
48. To avoid being close to young boys [homosexuality is harām].
49. To perform the five daily salāts on time, i.e. not to delay any salāt beyond its latest time.
50. Not to use or take anybodys possessions with zulm [with cruelty, unjustly].
51. To avoid shirk [idolatry, ascribing partners to Allahu taālā].
52. Refrain from fornication.
53. Refrain from drinking wine and other alcoholic beverages.
54. Not to swear [not to take an oath] without necessity.
The worst of all evil deeds is to disbelieve Allahu taālā and to be an atheist. To disbelieve the things that must be believed in is kufr [disbelief]. It is kufr to disbelieve Muhammad alaihissalām. Sincere belief in everything Muhammad alaihissalām brought from Allahu taālā and acknowledging these with ones tongue is called ĪMĀN [faith, belief]. Not saying [openly with the tongue] is excused when there is a hindrance [to an open declaration of īmān]. For īmān to exist, one must also abstain from using and saying things that Islam declares to be signs of kufr. To belittle something that belongs to Islamic ahkām, i.e. commandments and prohibitions of Islam, or to mock with Qurān al-karīm, with a malak [angel], with one of Nabees [Prophets] are among indications of kufr. Denial, that is, to disbelieve after hearing [about Islam], means not accepting. Doubting also means [is equivalent to] denial.
There are three types of kufr: Jahlī [based on ignorance], Juhūdī [based on obstinacy] and Hukmī [based on judgment].
I. The kufr of those who become kāfir because they have not heard and have not thought [about Islam] is kufr-i jahlī. Jahl [ignorance] is of two types: The first is simple. Someone like this knows that he is ignorant. These do not have an incorrect itiqād [creed]. They are like animals. This is because, what separates human beings from animals is ilm [knowledge] and comprehension [capacity to perceive]. These are even below animals. This is because animals are advanced in what they have been created for. The second type of jahl is jahl-i murakkab [compound ignorance]. This is having incorrect and deviated itiqād. Beliefs of Greek philosophers and those of the seventy two deviant sects of Muslims who have beliefs inconsistent with explicitly declared tenets of Islam are of this type. This type of ignorance is worse than the first [simple] type. This is a disease for which there is no known cure.
II. Kufr-i Juhūdī is also called kufr-i inādī [inād = stubbornness]. It refers to becoming kāfir knowingly, with obstinacy. This results from pride, arrogance, love of position [rank], or from fear of criticism. The kufrs [denials] of Firavn [Pharaoh] and his companions, and that of Heraclius were like this.
III. The third type of kufr is kufr-i Hukmī. One who says or does things that are declared as indications of lack of īmān becomes kāfir even if there is belief in his heart and he says he is a believer. To insult something that Islam requires Muslims to revere, or to revere something that should be despised according to Islam is kufr.
1. The statement Allahu taālā is looking at us from Arsh or from sky is kufr. [Because this statement attributes a makān (place) to Allahu taālā.]
2. It is kufr to say Allahu taālā is behaving cruelly towards you just like you behave cruelly towards me.
3. It is kufr to refer to a Muslim by saying He is the same as a Jew from my perspective.
4. It is kufr to support a lie by saying Allahu taālā knows that it is true. [Such a statement ascribes ignorance to Allahu taālā.]
5. It is kufr to say things that insult, mock or belittle malaks [angels].
6. It is kufr to say anything that belittles or contradicts Qurān al-karīm. It is kufr to disbelieve or demean even a single letter of Qurān al-karīm.
7. It is kufr to recite Qurān al-karīm together with musical instruments.
8. It is kufr to disbelieve or to speak ill of the real Tawrat [the book that descended to Mūsa [Moses] alaihissalām] or Injīl [the Bible]. The real [original] Tawrat and Injīl do not exist today.
9. It is kufr to recite Qurān al-karīm with shādh letters and to say that this is Qurān al-karīm. [It is kufr to recite in a way in which none of the religious scholars have recited, even if it does not change the meaning or the words.]
10. It is kufr to insult or to belittle the Nabees [Prophets].
11. It is kufr to disbelieve one of the twenty five Nabees named in Qurān al-karīm.
12. When referring to somebody who does a lot of good deeds, it is kufr to say that he/she is better than a Nabee.
13. It is kufr to say that Nabees were needy [dependent on others]. Because, their poverty was by their own choice.
14. If somebody says he is a Nabee, those who believe in him also become kāfir.
15. To make fun of things that will happen in the Hereafter is kufr.
16. To disbelieve the punishments in the grave and the Qiyāmat (by saying that they are contrary to wisdom or science) is kufr.
17. To deny seeing Allahu taālā in Jannat [Paradise] or to say I do not want Jannat, I want Allahu taālā, is kufr.
18. Words that indicate disbelief in Islam, [for example] saying that physical sciences are more useful than religious knowledge are kufr.
19. Saying Performing salāt and not performing salāt are the same is kufr [for this statement belittles salāt].
20. It is kufr to say I do not give zakāt. [For this is rejecting that zakāt is fard.]
21. It is kufr to say I wish interest were halāl [permitted].
22. It is kufr to say I wish cruelty [violating the rights of others] were halāl.
23. It is kufr to give money or property from a harām [religiously forbidden] source to a needy person and to expect thawāb [reward from Allahu taālā] in return. Similarly, it is kufr for the receiving person to pray for the donator to be rewarded (if he knows that the donation is from a harām source).
24. It is kufr to say that the qiyas [deductions, interpretations, the maddhab] of Imam Abū Hanifa is not haq [rightful]. This is one reason why Wahhabis become kāfir.
25. It is kufr to disapprove one of well-known sunnas [traditions and practices of the Nabee alaihissalām].
26. It is kufr to say I dont see anything but minbar, mat, and the grave when one hears the hadīth-i-sherīf The space [Ravda-i mutahhara] between my grave and my minbar is a garden among the gardens of Jannat. [Minbar: The high pulpit in a mosque climbed with stairs where the khutba is performed. Khutba: The homily delivered at the minbar by the imām during the prayers of Friday and Iyds (Islamic holidays).]
27. It is kufr to disbelieve Islamic knowledge, and to insult these and Islamic scholars.
28. If a person wants to be kāfir, he bocomes kāfir at the instant he decides to do so.
29. If a person wants another to become kāfir, he himself becomes kāfir if he wants this because he approves kufr.
30. If a person says words that cause kufr intentionally and with the knowledge that they cause kufr, he becomes kāfir. If he says those words without such knowledge, he again becomes kāfir according to the majority of scholars.
31. An action that is a cause for kufr will lead to kufr if carried out knowingly. According to many scholars, such an action will cause kufr when carried out without knowing that it is kufr.
32. To wear clothing or anything that symbolizes or represents kufr will cause kufr. A type of belt [rope] called zunnar and used by priests is an example. It is also kufr for a merchant to use these in non-Muslim countries. To use such things for fun, to make others laugh, or as a joke will also cause kufr.
33. It is kufr to use or do things that kāfirs use or do in their religious days. It is kufr to give such gifts to kāfirs on their religious holidays.
34. There is the danger of kufr-i hukmī in words that are spoken to show off with ones knowledge, wit and eloquence as well as to surprise others or to make them laugh, happy or to make fun of something or somebody. Words said with wrath, anger and rage are also dangerous.
35. If one who makes Ghiybat [backbiting, gossiping about someone] says I have not made Ghiybat, I have said the truth, it is kufr [because this is tantamount to denying that Ghiybat is a sin].
36. If a girl married at a young age does not know īmān and Islam when she reaches puberty, she is [automatically] divorced from her husband, she becomes murtad [apostate, a Muslim who becomes kāfir]. The same is true for a boy reaching puberty.
37. It is kufr to say you did good to somebody who has killed or ordered the killing of a mumin [without a just reason].
38. It is kufr to say killing him is required for a person whose execution is not wājib [obligatory].
39. It is kufr to say you did good, he deserved it to an oppressor who beats or kills a person without a justifiable cause.
40. It is kufr to lie by saying Allahu taālā knows that I love you more than my child.
41. If a Muslim with a high rank and position sneezes, and somebody says Yarhamukallah [may Allahs mercy be upon you] to him, it is kufr to say It is not appropriate to say so to your superiors!
42. To abandon salāt, zakāt, or sawm [fasting] by belittling their importance and disbelieving these ibādats will be kufr.
43. It is kufr to loose hope for Allahu taālās rahmat [mercy and forgiveness].
44. A property or money that is not harām itself but becomes harām because of a cause that occurs later is called harām li-gayrihi. Properties acquired by stealing or by other harām means are examples. It is not kufr to call these halāl. Things that are themselves harām, such as pork, wine, and carcass [meat of an animal slaughtered without saying the name of Allah], are called harām li-aynihi. It is kufr to call these halāl.
45. If some sinful action is known to be harām with certainty, then it is kufr to call it halāl.
46. It is kufr to denigrate things valued by Islam such as azān [call to prayer], mosque, and fiqh books.
47. It is kufr to perform salāt knowingly without abdast.
48. It is kufr to intentionally perform salāt towards a direction other than Qibla [the direction of Kaaba]. If one says that it is not necessary to perform salāt towards Qibla, he becomes kāfir.
49. It is not kufr to say kāfir to a Muslim just to insult him. But, it is kufr to say so by wishing him to be kāfir [because, approving kufr causes kufr]. [It is also kufr to say kāfir to a Muslim by believing that he is indeed kāfir.]
50. To commit a sin [does not cause kufr, but to do so] by belittling its significance will cause kufr.
51. Not believing that one must perform ibādats and refrain from sins is kufr.
52. To believe that the collected taxes are the property of the Sultan is kufr.
53. To like and approve the religious days of kāfirs, to wear zunnar and to use symbols of kufr without dharura [absolute necessity], and to shake the hand of a kāfir by displaying love or respect, all cause kufr.
54. It is kufr to swear (i.e. take an oath) willingly by saying Let me be a Jew, let me be kāfir if that person has or does not have that thing
, regardless of whether or not that person possesses the mentioned thing.
55. It is kufr to say I wish it were halāl so that I could do it, for harāms such as fornication, sodomy, interest, and lying which were harām in all religions.
56. It is kufr to say I believe the Nabees, but I do not know if Adam alaihissalām was a Nabee.
57. One who does not know that Muhammad alaihissalām is the ākhir time Nabee becomes kāfir [ākhir time is the final time period of the world; Muhammad alaihissalām is the last Nabee].
58. It is kufr to say If the Nabees are telling the truth, we are saved, if this is said to express suspicion.
59. If one is told Come, perform salāt and if he responds by saying No, I do not perform salāt, then he becomes kāfir. He does not become kāfir, however, if he means I do not perform salāt because you asked, but I do so because it is commanded by Allahu taālā.
60. If one is asked to wear his beard or cut his finger nails in accordance with Rasūlullahs sunna [in the manner He used to do these things], and he says No, I wont, he becomes kāfir. This applies to other sunnas [traditions of Muhammad alaihissalām] as well. (It is not kufr if he means I wont do it because you asked me to, but I do it because it is the sunna of Rasūlullah. To say No, I wont is kufr only if the intention is to belittle or refuse the sunna of Rasūlullah.) [Sunna: act, thing, though not commanded by Allāhu taālā, done and approved by the Prophet alaihissalām as an ibādat; there is thawāb if done, but no sin if omitted, yet it is a sin if continually omitted and kufr if despised.]
61. In general, it is kufr to belittle or to despise a sunna. It is sunna to shorten and trim the mustache. When one shortens his mustache in accordance with this sunna, to say This [trimming] is useless can lead to kufr.
62. [To wear silk is harām for a man.] If a man wears silk from head to toe, and if somebody says Bless your heart! [or something else that expresses approval and praise,] the person who says this is in danger of becoming kāfir. [In general, it is kufr to praise an action that is harām.]
63. If somebody commits a makrūh such as extending his legs towards Qibla [the direction of Kaaba] or spitting towards Qibla or urinating towards Qibla, and if he is told that this action is makrūh and he should not do it, if then he says I wish each of our sins were this little, this could lead to kufr. This is because he belittles (denies the significance of) a makrūh.
64. If a servant enters the room and says salām [greeting] to his master (employer), if then somebody there says Shut up, how can you give salām to your master?, the person who says so becomes kāfir. This would not be kufr, however, if his intention was to teach proper manners and to indicate that salām should be given sincerely.
65. It is kufr to say īmān increases and decreases. It is not kufr to say that yaqeen [certainty] and perfectness of īmān can increase or decrease.
66. It is kufr to say There are two Qiblas: One is Kaaba, the other is Qudus [Jarusalem]. It is kufr if he means now. On the other hand, it is not kufr to say that Bayt-ul Muqaddas [Masjīd-i Aqsā] was the Qibla, afterwards Kaaba became the Qibla.
67. Feeling and showing hostility and using bad language against a scholar of Islam without a justifiable cause may cause kufr.
68. It is said that one becomes kāfir if he says Not talking while eating is a good habit of majoosīs [fire worshippers], or Not sleeping with ones wife during her period is a good habit of majoosīs. [Because these statements entail the praise of kāfirs.]
69. If somebody is asked if he/she is a mumin, and if that person replies by saying inshaAllah [if Allah permits], this is kufr if he/she cannot make tawil [giving a meaning other than the obvious meaning of the statement]. [Because responding in this manner expresses doubt and uncertainty.]
70. Saying Allahu taālā needed your child to a person whose child has passed away is said to cause kufr [by Islamic scholars].
71. If a woman ties a black rope to her waist, and if she says this is zunnar [a rope customarily worn by priests] when asked what that rope is, she becomes kāfir. [It is not permissible to wear cloths and hats and symbols (such as a cross) representing non-Muslims.]
72. If one says Bismillah [with the name of Allah] when eating harām food, he becomes kāfir. This is the case for foods that are harām li-aynihi such as wine, lash [corpse/carcass, animal slaughtered without citing the name of Allah or died by itself], and pork. This is not the case for harāms that are not harām themselves, i.e. harām li-gayrihi. Saying Bismillah when eating stolen food is not kufr. Because, the food itself is not harām but stealing it is harām. [Stealing it by saying Bismillah would be kufr.]
73. It is kufr to approve [to be content with] the kufr of somebody else. Scholars have disagreed on whether or not it is kufr to pray by saying May Allahu taālā make you die as a kāfir. It is kufr to approve his kufr. But, it is not kufr to wish him everlasting and severe punishment because of his sins and cruelty [everlasting punishment is only for kāfirs].
74. To say Allahu taālā knows that I did not do this
, while he knows that he did that action, is kufr. This is because he has ascribed ignorance to Allahu taālā.
75. If one marries a woman without witnesses, and if he and that woman say Allahu taālā and his Rasūl are our witnesses, they both become kāfirs. This is because our Nabee (alaihissalām) did not know ghaib [things that cannot be observed or calculated or known by experience] before he passed away [so, he cannot know ghaib now, either]. It is kufr to say He knows ghaib. [Only Allahu taālā knows ghaib; Rasūl alaihissalām and others can know about something that is ghaib only if Allahu taālā informs them about it.]
76. If one says I know where stolen or misplaced things are, he and anybody who believes him become kāfirs. He becomes kāfir even if he says djinns [genies] inform him. Even Nabees and genies cannot know about ghaib. [Only Allahu taālā knows ghaib; Rasūl alaihissalām and others can know about something that is ghaib only if Allahu taālā informs them about it.]
77. If somebody wants to take an oath with the name of Allahu taālā, and somebody else says I dont want your oath to Allahu taālā; take an oath on your marriage and honor and decency, it is said that he becomes kāfir.
78. If one says Your face is like the soul taker [angel of death] to me, to somebody he does not like, it is said that he becomes kāfir. This is because the soul taker [Azrāil alaihissalām] is a great malak [angel].
79. If one says It is nice not to perform salāt, he becomes kāfir. If one says to another Come, perform salāt, and the other person responds by saying Performing salāt is a difficult activity for me, it is said that he becomes kāfir.
80. If one says Allahu taālā is my witness in the sky, he becomes kāfir. This is because he has attributed a location to Allahu taālā. Allahu taālā is munazzah [exalted, free] from being at a location [He is the creator of all locations and places].
81. It is kufr to say father Allah. [It is kufr to use words such as father and mother for Allahu taālā.]
82. If one says Rasūlullah alaihissalām used to lick his finger after eating food, and then if somebody else says This is improper behavior, he becomes kāfir.
83. If one says that Rasūlullah alaihissalām was black, he becomes kāfir. [In Turkey, some ignorant people call black colored dogs by saying Arab, Arab, and some others call cockroaches black Fatima. One should refrain from these.]
84. If one says Rizq is from Allahu taālā, but action from the person is also required, this is shirk. This is because the action of a person is also from Allahu taālā [Allahu taālā is the creator of all actions and all beings].
85. It is kufr to say It is better to be a Christian than a Jew, or It is better-more beneficial to be an American kāfir than being a communist. One should rather say Jews are worse than Christians, communists are worse and more harmful than Christians.
86. One becomes kāfir if he says Being kāfir is better than being a traitor.
87. Insulting Islamic scholars and ilm [Islamic knowledge] by saying What business do I have in a gathering for ilm [meeting for learning and teaching Islam]?, or Who has the ability to do the things scholars teach? is kufr. Similarly, it is kufr to throw a fatwa [decree by an Islamic scholar] to the ground or say Scholars words are useless.
88. If somebody says something that causes kufr, it is kufr to smile or laugh in return [expressing approval]. It is not kufr to laugh by dharura.
89. If one says The spirits of mashayeh [sheikhs] are always present and aware, he becomes kāfir. It is not kufr to say They become present. [The spirits of awliya cannot be present and cannot see like Allahu taālā. They become present when they are mentioned. They are not present before they are mentioned. They cease to be present afterwards.] [It is said that Allahu taālā is present (Hādir) and He sees (Nāzir). The use of the word present (Hādir) is metaphorical in this statement and means that His divine knowledge encompasses everything. This is because Allah exists without locality, place, or time. He is the Creator of space and time. It is not permissible to specify a location or a direction for Him. It is not permissible to say He is everywhere. He is the Creator of all directions, locations, and places.]
90. One becomes kāfir if he says I dont know Islam or I dont want Islam.
91. If one says If Adam alaihissalām had not eaten wheat, we would not have been sinners, he becomes kāfir. But there is disagreement about the statement we would not have been on this earth.
92. When one says Adam alaihissalām used to sew clothes, if another one answers Then, we are all drapers boys, he becomes kāfir.
93. If a person commits a minor sin, and if he says What have I done to warrant repentance? when he is asked to repent, he becomes kāfir [for belittling a sin].
94. If one asks another person Lets go to an Islamic scholar or Lets learn from fiqh and ilm al-hāl books, and he responds What use do I have for ilm [Islamic knowledge]? he becomes kāfir. This is because he is belittling [disparaging] ilm. [ilm al-hāl books contain information about itiqād [creed], on ahkām related to everyday life, halāl, harām, how to perform salāt and other ibādats, and other religious information necessary for all Muslims.]
95. Insulting, ridiculing, or vilifying books on tafsir [explanation of Qurān al-karīm] and fiqh [knowledge of harām, halāl, and other issues regarding actions] is kufr.
96. One becomes kāfir if he does not know the answers to questions like Whose descendant are you? To which milla [religion] do you belong? Who is your imam in itiqād? What is your maddhab in amal [actions and practice]?
97. One who declares an undisputed harām to be halāl [or an undisputed halāl to be harām] becomes kāfir. [It is dangerous to say that tobacco is harām.]
98. It is kufr to wish something to be halāl if that thing was harām in all religions and it is against hikmat [wisdom] for it to be halāl. Fornication, sodomy, continued eating after satiety, paying or receiving interest are such harāms. It is not kufr to wish wine were halāl because it was not harām in all previous religions.
99. It is kufr to use Qurān al-karīm amid nonsense conversation and jokes.
100. It is kufr to say (O Yahya! hooz-el-qitaba) [Maryam 19/12] to somebody named Yahya. It is also kufr to recite Qurān al-karīm together with musical instruments, songs, and games.
101. It is āfāt [disaster] to say I came now Bismillahi. [It is not appropriate to say things that sounds like I am so great, people come near me by saying bismillah.] If one sees something as too many or too much and says (MāhalakAllah) without knowing its meaning, he becomes kāfir.
102. It is āfāt [causes kufr] to say Now I wont curse you because they have named cursing a sin.
103. It is āfāt to ridicule or mock with a malak [angel], for example by saying You are naked like the calf [fawn] of Jabrail [Gabriel].
104. It is feared that saying For my sons head or Wallahi for my sons head may be kufr.
105. It is kufr to recite Qurān al-karīm, mawlid [praise of Rasūlullah alaihissalām] or qasidas [religious poems or lyrics recited with a beautiful voice] together with musical instruments or when music is being played. [It is in general strictly prohibited to use musical instruments in ibādats and prayers.]
106. It is harām to respectfully recite Qurān al-karīm, mawlid, qasidas, and salavats in gatherings of fisq [sin]. It is kufr to do so for fun and entertainment.
107- One becomes kāfir immediately if he fails to listen to and belittles the azān [call to salāt] recited according to sunna.
108- One who interpretes Qurān al-karīm according to his own mind becomes kāfir.
109- One who fails to believe in tenets of īmān that are widespread among Muslims and have been declared explicitly in Qurān al-karīm and hadīth-i-sherīfs and agreed on unanimously by mujtahid imams [scholars] becomes kāfir. This type of kufr is called ilhad, and such a kāfir is called mulhid [a mulhid thinks he is a Muslim].
110- Saluting a kāfir with respect is kufr.
111- It is kufr to say words showing respect to a kāfir, for example, saying my master to a kāfir is kufr.
112- One who approves the kufr of somebody else becomes kāfir.
113- Recordings of Qurān al-karīm [on electromagnetic media, tapes, CDs etc.] are valuable like mushaf al-sherīf [Qurān al-karīm written on paper]. Being disrespectful to these is also kufr.
114- It is kufr to believe in the fortune-tellers who interact with djinns [genies] and to those who consult astrology books and answer all asked questions, even if their words and actions turn out to be correct occasionally. It is because to believe that anybody other than Allahu taālā can know everything or can do anything he wishes is kufr.
115- It is kufr to neglect a sunna by belittling it and by thinking that it is insignificant.
116- The following cause kufr: To wear the belt (rope) called zunnar used by priests. To worship or to revere idols such as the Cross and statues and their pictures. To insult one of the religious books teaching the ahkām of Islam. To make fun of an Islamic scholar. To say or write something that causes kufr. To insult something that must be revered, or to revere something that should be despised [according to Islam].
117- It is kufr to say or to believe that a magician [one who casts spells] can do anything he wants using witchcraft and magic, and that his magic will certainly be effective.
118- When a Muslim is called kāfir by someone and he responds by saying [something like] Yes? which shows affirmation, he becomes a kāfir.
119- It is kufr to have a mosque built or to give sadaqa [alms, donation to the poor] or to do some other deed with money from a harām source and to expect thawāb [reward from Allahu taālā] in return.
120- If somebody gives sadaqa from a property that is certainly harām and expects thawāb in return, and if the receiving person says May Allah be pleased with you knowing that the donation is from a harām source, and if a third person says Amin, all become kāfir.
121- One who says it is halāl to marry a woman to whom nikāh [marriage] is harām becomes kāfir.
122- It is kufr to enjoy oneself by listening to Qurān al-karīm from a radio or a loud-speaker among people who have gathered to commit sins, e.g. in bars, taverns, places of games and entertainment.
123. It is kufr to recite Qurān al-karīm with musical instruments.
124- It is also kufr to be disrespectful to the reproduction of Qurān al-karīm recited on a radio or with a loud-speaker [although the sound coming from such devices is not human voice and therefore does not constitute actual Qirāat [recital], they are similar to actual recital and therefore one should not be disrespectful to such sounds].
125. It is kufr to call anybody other than Allahu taālā Creator whatever the intention is.
126- It is kufr to distort and change the names of Allahu taālā [e.g. to say Abdulkoydur instead of Abdulkaadir, etc.] intentionally and in a disrespectful manner. Similarly, it is kufr to say Memo instead of Muhammad, Hasso instead of Hasan, Ibo instead of Ibrahim. It is feared that those who write such names on shoes and slippers and those who step on them will become kāfir.
127. It is kufr to perform salāt without abdast knowingly. It is kufr to disapprove an action that is sunna. It is kufr to belittle sunna.
128. It is kufr to say We demolish graves because we are afraid that ignorant people will think that awliya are creators.
129- One who causes somebody else, especially his own child, to become kāfir becomes kāfir himself.
130- It is kufr to say that fornication and sodomy are halāl.
131- It is kufr to belittle harāms that are known by means of nass [āyats and hadiths with clear meanings] and ijma [agreement of Islamic scholars].
132- To continue and insist committing great sins leads one to kufr. It is kufr to belittle the significance of salāt.
133- It is kufr to lay a writing, even a paper or a cover or a sajjade [prayer rug] with single letter [of Qurān al-karīm] to the ground [with disrespect].
134- It is kufr to say Abū Bakr-i Siddiq and Umar-ul Faruq (radiyallahu taālā anhum) did not have the right to khilafat.
135- It is kufr to expect something from a deceased person apart from Allahu taālā [deceased or alive, nobody can do anything to help another without Allahu taālās help and creation; Allahu taālā creates everyting].
136- Saying Tez-veren [rapid-giver] Dede [old man, sheikh] is ugly and will cause kufr. [Allahu taālā gives everything.]
137- Since it is fard to burry the deceased into the ground [soil], one who avoids this service by belittling its importance becomes kāfir. One who says It is a backward [old, not progressive] practice to burry the deceased, it is better to burn their bodies like Buddhists and communists looses his īmān and becomes murtad [apostate].
138- It is kufr to deny one of Allahu taālās living or deceased awliya [beloved virtuous servants], either by heart or by spoken words.
139- It is kufr to be hostile to awliya and those [scholars] who act and live in accordance with their [Islamic] knowledge.
140. It is kufr to ascribe esmat [complete innocence, complete absence of all sins] to awliya. [Only Nabees have the esmat attribute.]
141- It is feared that one who has no share of ilm al-batin [inner knowledge, knowledge of heart and spirit] will die without īmān. The minimum degree of having a share of this ilm is to believe in it.
142- It is kufr to read [recite] Qurān al-karīm in a way none of the scholars have recited, even if the meaning and the words are not changed.
143- It is kufr to use something characteristic of the prayers and services of priests.
144- It is kufr to believe that any one event occurs by itself and that animals evolved from single-celled organisms towards higher organisms and finally to human beings.
145- One who does not perform salāt and does not plan to make qadā [make-up salāt], and does not fear punishment in the Hereafter in return [for not performing salāt], is kāfir in the Hanafi maddhab as well.
146- To carry out the ibādats [prayers, religious services] of kāfirs as ibādats, for example playing musical instruments like the pipe organ or ringing bells in mosques and to use things that are considered to be symbols of kufr in Islam without dharura [absolute necessity] and jabr [being forced] is kufr.
147- One who curses Ashab [the honorable companions of Muhammad alaihissalām] is called mulhid. Mulhid is kāfir.
148- It is kufr to hang the pictures of kāfirs on the walls out of respect.
149- It is kufr to exalt pictures, statues, and the cross by believing that the person or the thing they represent has the ulūhiyya [divinity, godhood] attribute, for example by saying that he can create or do whatever he wishes, he can give health to the sick etc. It is also kufr to do so for things such as stars, the sun, or cows.
150- One who slanders Hadrat Āisha [the Prophets blessed wife, our mother] radiyallahu anha [by calling Her a whore] and disbelieves that Her father [Abū Bakr (radiyallahu anh)] was a sahābī [companion] becomes kāfir.
151- It is known with dharura [necessity] that Isa [Jesus] alaihissalām will descend from the sky. One who denies this becomes kāfir.
152- It is kufr to call someone who is promised Jannat by Qurān al-karīm and hadīth-i-sherīfs a kāfir.
153- Trying to fit āyat-i karīmas that have nothing to do with [and are outside the scope of] science and experience to scientific knowledge, and to change the tafsirs of salaf-i sālihīn is a great crime. Those who make such translations and tafsirs become kāfir.
154- If a girl who is said to be a Muslim does not know about Islam when she reaches puberty, she becomes a kāfir without milla [religion]. The same holds for a boy.
155- It is harām [sinful, forbidden] for a Muslim woman to go outside her house with her head, arms, and legs open and visible to men. She becomes kāfir if she does not believe in the significance of this.
156- The fards and harāms declared by our beloved Nabee (alaihissalām) are as important as those declared explicitly in Qurān al-karīm. Those who disbelieve and deny these become kāfir.
157- To say (azīm) with (Zi) [prounced with back vowel, the tip of the tongue touches the front teeth, as in the] in ruku means My Rab is great. If (Ze) [front vowel, as in the usual z in English] is used to say (azīm), the meaning changes to (My Rab is my enemy) and the salāt is broken. Saying so [intentionally] causes kufr.
158- If somebody recites Qurān al-karīm with tagannee [as if singing a song for entertainment, adding extra letters and sounds], it is kufr to say How beautiful you recite! In general, it is kufr to say beautiful [good, nice, etc.] for something that is unanimously harām in the four maddhabs. Of course, it is not kufr to say that reciting Qurān al-karīm or his voice is beautiful.
159- One who denies the existence of malaks [angels] and djinns [genies] becomes kāfir.
160- The āyats [verses] of Qurān al-karīm are to be understood with the obvious, well-known meanings of the words therein. Those who follow the deviant sect of batinīs [Ismailīs] in changing these meanings become kāfir.
161- Doing magic [witchcraft, casting spells] will cause kufr if a word or an action that causes kufr is involved.
162- One who calls a Muslim O kāfir! [or says freemason or communist to a Muslim] becomes kāfir himself if he believes that he is kāfir.
163- If a person who performs his ibādats [salāt and others] has doubts [i.e. if he worries] about damage to his īmān and thinks like I have a lot of sins, my ibādats may not save me, [if he is afraid of loosing his īmān] this shows that his īmān is strong. If he doubts that his īmān will continue [if he is indecisive about remaining a Muslim], he becomes kāfir. [It is understood that he is a Mumin if he dislikes having such doubts.]
164- [As the exact number of Nabees is not known,] Saying an exact number for Nabees may be equivalent to disbelieving a Nabee or to assuming somebody who is not actually a Nabee is a Nabee. This in turn is kufr. This is because rejecting a single Nabee is equivalent to rejecting all Nabees.
If Islamic scholars have unanimously declared that a certain action or statement causes kufr, and if a Muslim says or does that willingly [without being threatened and forced to do or to say so] and knowing that it will cause kufr, either seriously or as a joke to make others laugh, he becomes kāfir even if he does not think about its meaning. He becomes murtad [apostate, renegade]. This is called kufr-i inadī. The thawābs of his earlier ibādats are wiped away and do not return even when he repents. If he is rich, he must go to Hajj again. He does not make qadā [make-up ibādat] for the salāts, sawms [fasts], and zakāts he neglected when he was murtad. He must, however, make qadā for such ibādats he failed to perform before becoming murtad. It is not sufficient to say only the kalimat ash-shahada to make tawba [repentance]. He must repent from the specific thing [statement, action, belief] that caused his kufr. [In other words, he must enter through the door from which he has exited Islam.] If he says or does something that will cause kufr without knowing that it causes kufr, or if he intentionally says something about which there is disagreement among scholars [about its causing kufr], then there is doubt about his īmān and nikāh [marriage bond] being destroyed. It is recommended that he make tajdid-i īmān and tajdid-i nikāh [renewal of īmān and nikāh] as a precaution. Doing or saying something without knowing that it causes kufr is called kufr-i jahlī. Not knowing is not an excuse, it is a great sin. This is because every Muslim must learn the things that are fard to learn. If a statement that causes kufr is said by mistake or with a tawil [a meaning other than the obvious meaning of the statement], īmān and nikāh are not destroyed. However, it is good to make tawba [repentance] and istighfār [saying forgive me to Allahu taālā], that is to make tajdid-i īmān.
Just as a kāfir becomes a Muslim with a single statement [kalimat at-tawhīd], a mumin can become kāfir with a single statement.
If hundred different meanings can be understood from an action or a statement of a Muslim, and if ninety nine of these show kufr, but only one shows that he has īmān, then it is necessary to say that he is a Muslim [and not a kāfir]. That is, the ninety nine meanings that cause kufr are ignored, and the meaning that is not kufr is assumed. This should not be misunderstood. Two points should be noted here. First, the person in question should be a Muslim. If for example- a Jew says something that praises Qurān al-karīm, or if a Christian says There is only one God, one cannot say that these are Muslims. Second, mention is made here of hundred different meanings of a single statement. Otherwise, if ninety nine statements contain kufr, and one statement shows īmān, that person cannot be called a Muslim.
Every Muslim should read the following prayer every morning and every night:
ALLAHUMMA INNĪ EŪZU BIKE MIN AN USHRIKA BIKA SHAY-AN WA ANA ALAMU WA ASTAGHFIRU-KA LI-MĀ LĀ-ALAMU INNAKA ANTA ALLĀMUL-GUYŪB.
Every Muslim should make tajdid-i īmān [renewal of īmān] and tajdid-i nikāh [renewal of nikāh] reading the following:
ALLĀHUMMA INNĪ URĪDU AN UJADDIDAL ĪMĀNA WANNIKĀHA TAJDĪDAN BI-QAWLI LĀ ILĀHA ILLALLAH MUHAMMADUN RASŪLULLAH
TO KEEP AND PROTECT OUR ĪMĀN,
FOR OUR ĪMĀN TO PERSEVERE
1- Must believe in ghaib [Things that cannot be learned with intelligence or physical senses (seeing, hearing, etc.), but can be learned only from Nabees. Examples include the attributes of Allahu taālā, the Hereafter, Jannat and Jahannam, malaks, djinns etc.]
2- Must believe that ghaibs [things that are not declared in Qurān al-karīm and hadīth-i-sherīfs, and cannot be understood by means of physical senses, experience, or calculations] can be known only by Allahu taālā and those He chooses to inform. [For example, the location of the moon at a certain time in the future is not ghaib because it can be calculated. On the other hand, most things that will happen in the future are ghaibs.]
3- Must know and accept harāms as harāms.
4- Must know and accept halāls as halāls.
5- Must not be sure of avoiding Allahu taālās punishment, i.e. one must always be in fear [of punishment].
6- Must never loose hope of Allahu taālā [of His forgiveness].
Denying the thing that caused kufr is also tawba. If a murtad dies before tawba, he is punished in the fire of Jahannam forever. Therefore, one must fear kufr very much and must talk very little. A hadīth-i-sherīf states (Always speak good, useful words. Otherwise, keep silent!). One should be serious and must avoid being playful and a joker. One should not do things that are unwise and inhuman. One must pray to Allahu taālā a lot for protection from kufr.
WHILE HAVING ĪMĀN AT THE PRESENT,
THINGS THAT MAY CAUSE THE LOSS OF ĪMĀN IN THE FUTURE
1- Having bidas [bida: innovation in religion]. That is, having incorrect itiqād [creed]. One who has a belief with the slightest difference from the itiqād described by Ahl al-Sunna scholars will be either a kāfir or a deviant.
2- Weak īmān, that is lack of amal [good deeds, actions].
3- Deviating the nine organs away from the right path.
4- To continue to commit great [major] sins.
5- Ceasing to thank for the gift of Islam.
6- Not being afraid of dying without īmān.
7- Cruelty to others.
8- Not listening to azān-i Muhammadī recited in accordance with sunna.
9- Being rebellious to ones mother and father.
10- Swearing [saying Allahu taālā is my witness, or wallahi, billahi, tallahi] very frequently even if telling the truth.
11- Neglecting tadīl-i arkān [remaining motionless for a while after becoming calm at four places] in salāt.
12- Failing to appreciate the significance of salāt and neglecting to teach salāt to ones dependants [children, wife] or preventing those who want to perform salāt.
13- Drinking alcoholic beverages.
14- Harassing or troubling mumins.
15- Pretending to be a walī, preaching religious knowledge insincerely.
16- To forget ones own sins, to belittle them.
17- To have kibr [pride, conceit, seeing oneself above others], that is to have a high opinion of oneself.
18- Ujb [liking one-self], that is thinking that one has a lot of ilm [knowledge] and amal [good deeds].
19- Being munafiq [insincere], being disingenuous.
20- Jealousy, being jealous [resentful] of other Muslim brothers and sisters.
21- To disobey the governments or ones teachers order that is not contrary to Islam.
22- To say someone is good without trying [without any experience with] that person.
23- To insist on lying.
24- Avoiding [keeping away from] ulama [Islamic scholars].
25- To grow the mustache longer than the length specified by sunna.
26- For men, to wear silk.
27- To insist on [to continue making] Ghiybat.
28- To trouble neighbors, even the kāfir ones.
29- Getting angry and enraged frequently for worldly affairs.
30- To pay and receive interest.
31- To wear cloths with extra long sleeves or skirt to boast and to show off.
32- To do witchcraft [magic, casting spells].
33- Neglecting to visit Muslim and sālih [pious] close relatives.
34- To dislike a person loved by Allahu taālā; to like those who want to corrupt Islam. [HUBB-I FILLĀH AND BUGHD-I FILLĀH is a condition of īmān.]
35- Bearing a grudge against a mumin for more than three days.
36- To continue committing fornication.
37- Committing sodomy and not to repent.
38- Not reciting the azān at the correct times described in fiqh books and in accordance with sunna, and failing to listen (with respect) to the azān recited according to sunna.
39- Failing to make nahy [warning somebody against committing a sin] politely [with friendly conversation] to a person committing a munkar [harām, sin], although he has the power to make such a nahy.
40- Approving his wife, his daughter -or any women he has the right to advise- to go out [to outside the house] with their heads, arms, legs open and wearing ornaments [showy dresses, jewelries etc] and nice smells [perfumes] and to meet with bad people.
GREAT SINS ARE PLENTIFUL [SEVENTY TWO ARE LISTED BELOW]
1- To kill a person without a just cause.
2- Fornication and adultery.
4- To drink wine and all kinds of alcoholic beverages. [Drinking beer is harām.]
5- To steal.
6- To eat, drink or smoke narcotic drugs for pleasure.
7- To take somebody elses possession with force [to seize by violence, robbery].
8- To lie as a witness. [Giving a false testimony].
9- To eat and drink in front of Muslims during Ramadan [month of fasting] without a valid reason.
10- To pay or receive interest.
11- To swear [to say Wallahi, Billahi, Allah is my witness...] frequently.
12- To rebel against ones parents, to oppose them.
13- Abandoning sila-i rahm [visitation] to Muslim and sālih close relatives.
14- To run away from the enemy by abandoning a battle.
15- To use [to spend, to take away] an orphans possessions without a right to do so.
16- To cheat in weighing and measuring [during buying and selling].
17- To perform salāt before or after its correct time.
18- To break the heart of a mumin [is a greater sin than demolishing the Kaaba. Other than kufr, there is no greater sin that offends Allahu taālā as much as breaking a heart.]
19- To quote a statement not made by Rasūlullah (sall-Allahu alaihi wa sallam) and then to ascribe it to Him.
20- To take bribes.
21- To avoid giving a true testimony.
22- Not giving zakāt and ushr of ones possessions.
23- Not preventing somebody from committing a sin, a munkar even though one has the power to do so.
24- To burn an animal alive.
25- To forget [to loose the ability to] reading Qurān al-karīm after learning to do so.
26- To loose hope for Allahu taālās rahmat [is kufr].
27- Betraying [being treacherous to] persons whether they are Muslims or kāfirs.
28- Eating pork [pig meat].
29- To dislike and to curse any one of Ashab-i kirām [the honorable companions] of Rasūlullah.
30- To continue eating after fullness [satiety].
31- For a woman, to escape from the bed of her husband.
32- For a woman, making visits without permission from her husband.
33- To accuse an honorable woman of being a whore.
34- Namīma [Talebearing], that is to spread gossip among Muslims. [For example, if Ahmad says something negative about Mahmad, and if somebody tells Mahmad Ahmad said so and so about you, this is namīma.]
35- To display [show] the places of awrat [parts of the body that must be covered] to others. [For men, the body between the belly and the knees is awrat. For women, the hair, the arms, the legs are included in awrat (against men).] It is harām to look at the places of awrat of others.
36- To eat a carcass [meat from an animal that died by itself or which has been killed in a manner not prescribed by Islam] and to feed it to others.
37- To betray an amanat [something entrusted to him for safekeeping].
38- To make Ghiybat of a Muslim.
39- Hasad [being resentfully jealous].
40- To make shirk [to ascribe partners] to Allahu taālā.
41- To lie.
42- Kibr [pride, conceit], to see oneself above others.
43- For the terminally ill, hiding wealth from an inheritor.
44- Being bahīl [avaricious], extremely hasīs [stingy].
45- Having love for this world [worldly possessions and pleasures].
46- Not being afraid of the azab [punishment and wrath] of Allahu taālā.
47- Failing to believe that something that is actually harām is harām.
48- Failing to believe that something that is actually halāl is halāl.
49- To believe in the predictions and information about ghaib coming from fortune-tellers.
50- To abandon ones religion, to become murtad.
51- Looking at other mens wives and daughters without a valid reason.
52- For women, wearing mens clothes.
53- For men, wearing womens clothes.
54- To commit a sin in Harem-i Kaaba.
55- To recite azān and to perform salāt before the correct time.
56- To oppose and to rebel against the orders of statesmen and the laws of the land.
57- To liken his wifes private parts to those of his mothers.
58- To swear at his wifes mother.
59- To aim at each other [with a weapon].
60- To eat and drink the leftovers of a dog.
61- To remind one reproachfully of a kindness done to him. [To rub in a favor done to someone.]
62- For men, to wear silk.
63- To insist on remaining ignorant [To avoid learning the Ahl al-Sunna itiqād, the fards, the harāms and other required knowledge.]
64- To take an oath saying names other than Allahu taālā and those specified by Islam.
65- To avoid ilm [religious knowledge].
66- Failing to understand that ignorance is a calamity.
67- To insist on repeating a minor sin.
68- To make a habit of loud laughter without dharura [i.e. willingly].
69- To remain junub for a duration long enough to miss a salāt.
70- To have intercourse with his wife during her [monthly] period or during lohusa [after child birth] state.
71- To make tagannee [singing songs for entertainment]. To sing obscene songs, to use musical instruments. [Singing a song occasionally by oneself without any musical instruments and to dispel distress is permitted.]
72- To commit suicide.
The muta nikāh, the temporary nikāh are harām. It is harām for a woman to go outside her house with her head, hair, arms and legs open and visible to men. It is also harām for her to go out wearing thin, tight, flashy [ornamented], nice smelling dresses.
It is harām to look at a woman whose main awrat places [the part of the body between the knees and the belly] are covered with tight clothing even without lust. It is harām to look at a stranger womans underwear with lust. It is harām to lustfully look at places other than main awrat places covered with tight clothing. It is harām to make, to publish, and to produce pictures that cause lust and harām. [It is kufr to say things like so what? or what is the harm? for harāms.]
Using water in unnecessary amounts during abdast and ghusl is isrāf [wasteful expenditure] and [is therefore] harām.
Defaming past awliya, calling them ignorant, ascribing meanings contrary to Islam to their statements, denying that they have karāmāt after they die and thinking that they cease to be awliya when they die and to prevent those who make tabarruk [getting blessings] with their graves are harām just like having Sū-i zan [bad thoughts without solid evidence] about Muslims, being cruel to Muslims, rubbing their possessions, and hasad [being jealous], slandering, lying and making Ghiybat.
TEN THINGS CAUSE DYING WITHOUT ĪMĀN
IN THE LAST BREATH
1- Not learning the orders and prohibitions of Allahu taālā.
2- Not correcting ones īmān [creed] according to the Ahl al-Sunna itiqād.
3- Being fond of worldly possessions, positions [ranks], and fame.
4- Treating cruelly and hurting humans, animals, and oneself.
5- Failing to thank Allahu taālā and those who cause good and beneficial things to come to us [those who do us kindness and favors].
6- Not being afraid of being kāfir.
7- Not performing the five salāts on time.
8- To pay and receive interest.
9- To despise religious Muslims, calling them backward, primitive, etc.
10- Speaking and writing obscene words, and producing obscene [pornographic] pictures [drawings, photographs, movies].
THE FOLLOWING SHOULD BE HEEDED TO FOR HAVING
AHL AL-SUNNA ITIQĀD
1- Allahu taālā has sifats [attributes]. These are separate from His dhāt [self].
2- Īmān does not increase or decrease.
3- Īmān is not destroyed by committing a great sin.
4- Belief in ghaib is essential.
5- There is no qiyas [ijtihad, deduction with comparison with explicitly declared matters] in īmān.
6- Allahu taālā will be seen [by Muslims who are] in Jannat.
7- Tawakkul [putting ones trust in Allah] is a condition of īmān.
8- Amals (ibādats) are not components of īmān.
9- Belief in Qadar [destiny] is a condition of īmān.
10- It is necessary to follow one of the four maddhabs in amals.
11- It is necessary to love [and to respect] all of Ashab-i kirām, Ahl-i bayt, and the wives of our beloved Nabee alaihissalām.
12- The superiorities of the four khalifas [caliphs] are in the order of their khilafets [caliphates].
13- It is jaiz [permissible] to donate the thawābs [rewards] of nafila [non-obligatory] ibādats like salāt, sawm [fasting], and sadaqa [alms] to another Muslim.
14- Mirāj [ascension] occurred with both the body and the soul.
15- The karāmāt [extraordinary actions and states] of awliya [saints, pious persons loved by Allahu taālā] is hak [true].
16- Shafāat [intercession] is hak.
17- Mash [wiping] above mast [light, thin-soled boot] is jaiz [for abdast].
18- There is questioning in the grave.
19- Punishment in the grave will be both to the soul and the body.
20- Allahu taālā is the Creator of humans and their actions. Humans have irāda-i juziyya [minor will].
21- Rizq may be both from halāl or harām.
22 It is permissible to make tawassul with awliyas souls and to pray to Allahu taālā saying for their sake.
3- Fear of being criticized. [Failing to accept the truth due to a dislike of criticism, backbiting, and condemnation by other people.]
4- Enjoying [and wanting] to be praised [due to self-admiration].
5- Bidas in itiqād [incorrect belief, corrupted īmān].
6- Hawa al-nafs. [Submission to the desires, pleasures, and lusts of the nafs.]
7- Īmān based on imitation. [Imitation of unknown persons.]
8- Riyā. [Showing off, seeking worldly benefits by performing ibādats.]
9- Tūl-i emel. [Wanting to live long for pleasures and enjoyment.]
10- Tama. [Seeking wordly pleasures through forbidden means.]
11- Kibr. [Regarding oneself as better than and above others.]
12- Tazallul. [Extreme humility, lowliness.]
13- Ujb. [To admire ones own ibādats and good deeds, self-admiration]
14- Hasad. [Being resentfully jealous, wishing another person to loose the nemat [benefit, virtue, richness, beauty, rank, etc.] in question. Ebullays-i Samarkandī said: (The prayers of three persons are not accepted: One who eats harām, one who makes Ghiybat, and one who has hasad).]
15- Hiqd. [To hate another person, to bear animosity. To belittle others.]
16- Shamātat. [Being glad for a misfortune or harm that came to someone else.]
17- Hijr. [To abondon friendship, to remain mad at someone.]
18- Jubn. [Cowardice, lack of sufficient shajāat [bravery].]
19- Tahawwur. [Having extreme and harmful anger and harshness.]
20- Ghadr. [Not keeping ones word, not holding to ones promises and agreements.]
21- Hiyānat. [Perfidy. Indication of being munafiq [hypocrite, one who pretends to be a Muslim]; statement or action that damages confidence.]
22- Turning back on a promise. [Not holding to ones promise. Hadīth-i-sharīf states: (There are three indications of nifaq [hypocrisy]: Lying, not holding to ones promise, betraying something entrusted for safekeeping.)]
23- Sū-i zan. [Sū-i zan is harām. To think that Allah will not forgive ones sins is Sū-i zan against Allahu taālā. To assume that mumins are sinners [fāsiqs] is also Sū-i zan.]
24- Love of possessions. [Being fond of possessions e.g. money, jewelry, land, houses, etc.]
25- Taswīf. [To postpone good deeds.] Hadīth-i-sherīf states: (Appreciate the value of five things before five things arrive: Life before death, health before illness, the value of earning the Hereafter [Afterlife] while in this world, youth before old age, wealth before poverty.)
26- Liking fāsiqs [sinners]. [The worst fisq [sin] is zulm [cruelty]. One who commits harāms is called fāsiq.]
27- Hostility to Islamic scholars. [Mocking Islamic sciences and scholars is kufr.]
28- Fitna. [Fitna is pushing or leading people into troubles and calamities. Hadīth-i-sherīf states: (Fitna is asleep. Lanet [May Allahs wrath be] unto him who awakes it!)]
29- Mudāhana [concession]. [Mudāhana is giving up religion for worldly benefits and choosing not to dissuade somebody who is committing a harām, although he has the power to dissuade him.] Giving worldly benefits for [the protection and practice of] religion is mudārā [i.e. mudārā is not a bad habit].
30- Inād [stubbornness, obstinacy] ve mukābara [conceit, pride]. [Not accepting the truth after hearing it.]
31- Nifaq [hypocrisy]. [Being munafiq, insincere, hypocritical.]
32- Not making tafakkur [pondering, reflection, thinking]. [Not pondering about ones sins, or about creatures and oneself.]
33- Curse [pray for the harm of] a Muslim.
34- Calling a Muslim with a belittling nickname.
35- Not to accept an apology.
36- To make an incorrect tafsīr [explanation] of Qurān al-karīm.
37- To persist on committing a harām.
38- Ghiybat [backbiting, talking behind peoples back].
39- Not to repent.
40- Greed for possessions and position [rank].
[One should refrain from bad habits and try to have good habits. Hadīth-i-sharīfs state: (A person with a small amount of ibādats attains high degrees in Qiyāmat due to his good habits.)
(The easiest and the most beneficial ibādat is to talk very little and to have good habits.)
(To get close to those who withdraw away from you, to forgive those who treat you cruelly, and to donate to those who deprive you constitute having good habits [i.e. good moral character].)