Question: What should we recite upon completing salat?
One who performed salat individually or behind the imam should say upon saying the salam (taslim) at the end of salat, “Allahumma anta-s-salaam wa minka-s-salaam tabaarakta ya dhal jalaali wa-l ikraam.”
After it, one should say three times, “Astaghfirullah al-azeem alla-dhee laa ilaaha illaa huwal hayyal qayyooma wa atoobu ilayh.” This is called prayer of repentance.
After reciting Ayat al-Kursi, one should say “Subhanallah” 33 times, “Alhamdulillah” 33 times, and “Allahu akbar” 33 times. Then one should say, “Laa ilaaha illallahu wahdahoo laa shareeka lah lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu wa huwa ‘alaa kulli shay’in qadeer.” It is bid’at to add any other du’a to this order.
Then one should raise one’s hands and make du’a (supplication). After du’a, one should say “Amin” and wipe one’s face with one’s hands. It is stated in a hadith-i sharif, “The du’a made after the five fard salats is accepted.”
Question: What surah and adhkar should we recite after making du’a following salat?
You should recite Surat al-Ikhlas 11 times, Surat al-Falaq once, Surat an-Nas once. Then say “Astaghfirullah” 67 times, thus the total number of them will be 70 [because you also said it on completion of salat 3 times]. Say “Subhaanallahi wa bi-hamdihi subhaanallahil azeem” 10 times. Say the ayah [that begins with], “Subhana rabbika …”
Question: I saw when I was offering hajj in Mecca that some people left after salat without saying tasbihaat or du’a. They say that it is bid’at to say tasbihaat collectively after salat and to say “Amin” to the imam’s du’a. Are they bid’at, indeed?
It is best for the jama’at and the imam to make du’a together quietly. It is also permissible for them to make du’a separately or to leave the mosque without making du’a, but one should not form a habit of leaving the mosque without making du’a. We should both say “Amin” to the du’a of the imam and make du’a individually as well. What is bid’at is a muazzin’s leading people in tasbihaat. Saying tasbihaat (uttering Subhanallah, Alhamdulillah, and Allahu akbar, 33 times each) or making du’a is not bid’at.
It is written in fiqh books:
After performing a fard salat, if there is no final sunnat after the fard, or after performing the final sunnat, it is mustahab for the imam to turn right or left or toward the jama’at. He may as well leave the mosque at once if he has some work to do. It is stated in a hadith-i sharif, “Whoever says, ‘Astaghfirullah al-‘a-dheem al-la-dhee laa ilaaha illaa huw-al-hayy-al-qayyooma wa atoobu ilayh’ three times after every salat, all his sins will be forgiven.” After the prayer of repentance, it is mustahab (for the imam and for the jama’at) to recite Ayat al-Kursi once and then to say “Subhanallah,” “Alhamdulillah,” and “Allahu akbar,” 33 times each. Then they should say “Laa ilaaha illallahu wahdahu laa shareeka lah …” once. Afterwards, they should raise their hands as high as their chests and make du’a. (Maraqi al-Falah, Tahtawi)
Together with the imam and jama’at, stretch your arms a little ahead and raise them as high as your chest. Open your palms completely and make them face the sky. Make du’a and conclude it with Amin. (Ey Ođul Ýlmihali)
Four hadith-i sharifs on saying “Amin” at the end of du’a are as follows:
(If a jama’at makes du’a collectively and if some of them say “Amin,” Allahu ta’ala accepts that du’a.) [Hakim]
(The one who makes du’a and the one who says “Amin” to it are partners of thawab [reward].) [Daylami]
(Let the imam not exclude the jama’at from his du’a. If he does, he will have betrayed them.) [Bayhaqi]
(When the imam says “Amin,” say “Amin” too because if the Amin of any of you coincides with that of angels, his past sins will be forgiven.) [Bukhari]
It is not bid’at, but mustahab, for the jama’at to say the tasbihaat and to make du’a together with the imam. (Ni’mat-i Islam)
Question: What should we say when making du’a (supplication) at the end of salat?
There is not a formula to be said when one is making du’a after salat. Everyone should say words according to his/her specific needs. It is not correct to make the same du’a all the time. One should be consciously aware of what one is asking for. It is not right to say things without the presence of mind, and it is makruh to memorize some clichés as du’a and to recite them in a poetic form. Du’a should be made in a soft voice and with the presence of mind and heart. It is makruh, too, to restrict du’a to certain times and occasions, such as on completion of salats. One should take every opportunity to make du’a.
For example, one may make such a du’a:
“Alhamdulillahi rabbil aa-lameen as salaatu was salaamu ‘alaa rasoolina Muhammadin wa ‘alaa aa-lihi wa sahbihi ajma’een.
O my Rabb! Accept our salats that we have performed. Make our fates and ends good. Bless us with saying “Laa ilaaha illallah Muhammadun rasoolullah” at our last breath. Forgive our dead ones.
O my Rabb! Protect us against the evils of the Devil, of the enemy, and of our nafs-i ammara. Send goodness and good sustenance that has barakah to our homes. Give safety and well-being to followers of Islam. Confound and devastate the enemy of Islam. Help those Muslims who perform jihad against disbelievers.
Allahumma innaka ‘afuwwun tuhibbul afwa fa’fu ‘annee.
O my Rabb, heal sick Muslims and give a remedy to grief-stricken ones.
Allahumma innee as-alukas-sihhata wal ‘aafiyata wal-amaanata wa husnal-khulqi war-ridaa-a bil-qadari bi rahmatika yaa arhamar-raahimeen.
Protect us from two-facedness, hypocrisy, conflict, all kinds of illnesses, accidents, disasters, laziness, inability, contemptibleness, oppression, wealth and poverty that lead one astray, the evils of the Devil and of the nafs, the triumph of the enemy, vices, committing bid’at, going astray, deeds without ikhlas, all types of sins, disbelief, abject old age, trials that will befall at the time of death, and everything that will negatively affect our worldly and otherworldly lives.
Bless us with true faith, good moral qualities, a thanksgiving heart, a tongue that mentions You, a good life that is pleased with qada and qadar, eating less, sleeping less, talking less, laughing less, serving much, deliverance from the torment of the grave and of the terrors of the Day of Judgment, doing deeds with which You are pleased during our lifetime, dying a martyr, and the belief of Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah and repentance at our last breath.
O my Rabb, bless us with Your love, the love of those whom You love, and the love of every action that will make me attain Your love. Increase our knowledge, ikhlas, and abilities. Include us among the murad (the selected ones) and the mukhlas (owners of permanent ikhlas). Make us one of those who are generous and have the quality of doing isar (giving others the things that you need; preferring others to yourself).
O my Rabb, grant good lives, good moral qualities, a sound mind, good health, well-being, guidance, seeking and finding the true path to our parents, our children, our relatives, our companions, and our fellow Muslims. Amin.
Wal hamdulillahi rabbil ‘aalameen. Allahumma salli ‘alaa … Allahumma barik ‘alaa … Allahumma rabbanaa aatinaa … Wal hamdulillahi rabbil ‘aalameen. Astaghfirullah, astaghfirullah, astaghfirullah.
Astaghfirullah al-azeem al-kareem alla-dhee laa ilaaha illaa hu, al-hayyal qayyooma wa atoobu ilayh.”
Question: Is there anything wrong with looking up to the sky during du’a?
It is not correct to lift your head up to the sky when making du’a because Allahu ta’ala is free from occupying a place. It is very dangerous to think, as some deviant people do, that Allahu ta’ala is in the sky. A hadith-i sharif recorded by Bukhari strictly forbids looking up to the sky in salat. (Al-Anwar)
Question: As a hadith-i sharif says, “Whoever recites the last three verses of Surat al-Hashr in the morning and in the evening will die a martyr,” I regularly recite these three verses in the morning and in the evening. When I perform salat in the mosque, the imam recites them and we listen to his recitation. If I do not recite them individually after the imam, will his recitation be enough for me to earn thawab and to die a martyr?
It is sunnat to read (or recite) the Qur’an al-karim and fard to listen to it when it is being recited. As the listener earns much more thawab than the reader, it is not necessary for the listener to recite them again. Similarly, if one habitually recites the verses (that begin with) “Amanarrasoolu …” every night, one does not have to recite them again after listening to them from the imam. (Shir’a)
Question: It is recommended in a hadith-i sharif that we should recite the last three verses of Surat al-Hashr after Salat al-Fajr and Salat al-Maghrib. However, people recite them from the verse (that begins with) “Law anzalnaa …” Similarly, it is recommended in a hadith-i sharif that we should recite Surat al-Ikhlas 10 times after salats, but you say that we should recite it 11 times. What is the reason for such differences?
When there are several narrations on a matter, it is preferable to choose the most meritorious one. Accordingly, it is better to recite Surat al-Hashr from the verse (that begins with) “Law anzalnaa …” It is reported that we should recite Surat al-Ikhlas 10 or 11 times after salats. It is better to recite it 11 times. A hadith-i sharif says:
(A mansion will be given to a Muslim who recites Surat al-Ikhlas 11 times after Salat al-Fajr.) [Haraiti] (This hadith-i sharif is written on the 382nd page of Ramuz-ul-Ahadith.)
Question: It is stated in a hadith-i sharif that whoever says, after completing Salat al-Fajr, “Laa ilaaha illallahu wahdahu laa shareeka lah lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu yuhyi wa yumit wa huwa ‘alaa kulli shay’in qadeer” 10 times while sitting seiza-style without crossing his legs and without talking, he will be protected against all kinds of evils and the evils of the Devil that day, and he will earn many thawab. If one recites it while sitting cross-legged due to pain in one’s foot or while exiting the mosque or while sitting on a chair, will one receive the same thawab?
For every act of worship, there is an azima and a rukhsa way. The method explained in the hadith-i sharif is the best way.
One should read the Qur’an al-karim by sitting seiza-style on the ground, by facing the qibla, and by observing the etiquette of reading the Qur’an al-karim. So is the case with supplications (du’a). One can recite them by sitting on a chair if there is necessity.
One is allowed to recite them by heart while walking. The same rule applies to supplications, too. One should recite them by sitting seiza-style on the ground if there is no need to do otherwise.
If one suffers from foot pain or if one’s feet are numbed when one sits seiza-style, then there is nothing wrong with one sitting cross-legged. It is permissible, too, to recite them while walking or while sitting on a chair. However, the best method is the one explained in the hadith-i sharif.
Question: What is the method of saying istighfar after salat?
One should say “Astaghfirullah” three times after salat. It is stated in a hadith-i sharif, “Whoever recites ‘Astaghfirullah al-azeem alladhee laa ilaaha illaa huwal hayyal qayyooma wa atoobu ilayh’ three times after every salat will have all his sins forgiven” [Maraqi al-Falah]. For this reason, it is better to recite it fully instead of saying only “Astaghfirullah.”
That it is bid’at for a muazzin to recite this prayer loudly is written on the 59th page of the book Al-Ibda.
Question: Is it necessary to recite Surat al-Fatiha after reciting the Qur’an al-karim following salat?
Whether one recites or does not recite the Qur’an al-karim after salat, either is permissible. However, as reading the Qur’an al-karim brings much thawab, it is best to read it if one has time. Thus, one will say the verse (that begins with) “Subhana rabbika …” after finishing the recitation and then will recite Surat al-Fatiha. It is very rewarding to recite Surat al-Fatiha. The following hadith-i sharifs say:
(The surah in the Qur’an al-karim that has the most benefits is Surat al-Fatiha.) [Imam-i Ahmad]
(The most virtuous surah of the Qur’an al-karim is Surat al-Fatiha.) [Hakim]
(Surat al-Fatiha is a cure for all illnesses.) [Bayhaqi]
(Surat al-Fatiha is a cure for poison.) [Abu ash-Shaikh]
When a Sahabi said that he recited Surat al-Fatiha, our Master the Prophet stated:
(I swear that Allah did not reveal a surah similar to that surah in the Tawrat [Torah], Injeel [Bible], or Zabur [Psalms]. It is seven verses repeated in salats and of the Mighty Qur’an, which has been given to me.) [Tirmidhi]
When our Master the Prophet was sitting with Jibril ‘alaihis-salam, an angel came and said:
(I am giving you the good news of two lights that have been given only to you and no prophet before you was given. They are Surat al-Fatiha and the concluding verses of Surat al-Baqarah. For every letter you will recite from these two surahs, you will definitely be given whatever you want.) [Muslim]
(Surat al-Fatiha averts the wrath of Allahu ta’ala.) [Shir’a]
A snake bit a chieftain. When one of the Blessed Companions recited Surat al-Fatiha, he recovered by the will of Allah. The chieftain gave him a lot of sheep as gifts. As he did not know whether it was permissible or not to accept them, he asked our Master the Prophet it. The Messenger of Allah asked, “What did you recite?” When he said that he recited Surat al-Fatiha, our Master the Prophet stated:
(How did you know that Surat al-Fatiha is a cure. Accept those sheep, and share them between the people with you.) [Bustan-ul-Arifin]
It is written in the book Bariqa:
“It is better to recite Surat al-Fatiha at occasions where recitation of a du’a is recommended. Making du’a after salats is established by hadith-i sharifs. Surat al-Fatiha was revealed to tell us the best of du’as. When the imam wants the jama’at to recite Surat al-Fatiha, it is good for the jama’at to recite it quitely because it is mustahab to praise Allahu ta’ala at the end of du’as. The best way of praising Him is to recite Surat al-Fatiha.” [p. 137]
It is permissible to read the Qur’an al-karim after salats and to recite Surat al-Fatiha on completion of reading the Qur’an al-karim. It is not a sin not to recite Surat al-Fatiha, but it brings thawab to recite it.
Question: Some individuals, saying that it is bid’at and haram to say “Al-Fatiha” and to recite it on completion of recitation of the Qur’an, cause dissension among Muslims. What is the ruling on it in fiqh books?
Hadrat Muhammad Ma’sum Faruqi states in the 197th letter of the first volume of his Maktubat:
“Our religious superiors did not recite Surat al-Fatiha by raising their hands after the five daily salats. It is bid’at to recite it after salats for the fulfillment of a need.”
According to this quotation, what is impermissible is to raise the hands and to recite Surat al-Fatiha after salat for the fulfillment of a need. There is nothing wrong with reciting it if these are not done.
Is it bid’at or not to recite Surat al-Fatiha after salat and supplications? Hadimi writes its answer detailedly on the 137th page of the book Bariqa. Let’s explain briefly: According to the majority of scholars, it is better to recite Surat al-Fatiha at places where it was declared to recite du’a. Moreover, it has been declared in hadith-i sharifs to make du’a after salats. Bid’at means an ’ibada that is performed without the Owner of Islam permitting it. Surat al-Fatiha descended in order to reveal the best of du’as. No scholar said it would be bid’at to recite it after salats or du’as. It is forbidden for the entire congregation to recite it loudly altogether. When the imam says “Al-Fatiha,” it is good that everybody recite it quitely. For it is mustahab to do hamd (praising) after du’as. And the best hamd is to recite Surat al-Fatiha. It is makruh to recite it between fard and sunnat salats and in order to attain what one desires. (Islam’s Reformers)
It is stated in the passage above that it is good to recite Surat al-Fatiha. However, in common with what was stated in the passage before it, it is stated that reciting it for the fulfillment of a need is makruh. It is also stated that it is not correct to recite it between fard and sunnat salats loudly in chorus.
It is written in Jila-ul-Qulub: “When one comes to a cemetery, one should say ‘Assalamu alaikum yaa ahla daar-il-qawm-il-mu’mineen. Innaa ishaallahu an qareebin bikum laahiqoon’ in standing position. Then one should recite Surat al-Ikhlas 11 times and Surat al-Fatiha once by saying the Basmala before each. One should approach the grave from the right-hand side of the deceased and from the side where the deceased’s feet are. He greets the deceased. Standing, squatting, or sitting, one should recite the initial or concluding verses of Surat al-Baqara, Surat Yasin, Surat al-Mulk, Surat at-Takathur Surat al-Ikhlas, and Surat al-Fatiha and then present the thawab of them to the deceased.” [As it is seen, Surat al-Fatiha is recited at the end.]
It is written in Ey Ođul Ýlmihali:
“After a salat, make du’a with the imam and the jama’at by spreading out your arms a little ahead, raising them to chest level, and making your palms face the sky. Say ‘Amin’ at the end of your du’a. On completion of your du’a, wipe your face with your hands and say ‘Wal hamdulillahi rabbil ‘aalameen.’ Recite salawat and Surat al-Fatiha.”
[It is stated explicitly in the passage above that one should recite Surat al-Fatiha at the end of salat.]
Question: Could you please inform us of some du’as that we may say after salat?
There are many du’as that we may say after salat. I will mention one of them. Our Master the Prophet said:
(O Muadh, by Allah I love you. Do not fail to say after every salat, “Allahumma a’innee ‘alaa dhikrika wa shukrika wa husni ibaadatika.”) [Nasai] (It means, “O my Rabb, bless me with remembering You, thanking You, and worshiping You well.)
In order to become beneficiary of the hadith-i sharif “Whoever prays for male and female Believers 25 times a day, he will be included among those for whom sustenance is granted to the world and those whose du’as are answered,” reported by Tabarani, one should say the following du’a:
(Whoever says “Allahummaghfir lee wa li-waalidayya wa li-usta-dhiy-ya wa lil mu’mineena wal mu’minaat wal muslimeena wal muslimaat al ahyaa-i minhum wal amwaat bi-rahmatika yaa arhamar-raahimeen” 25 times a day, he will be recorded among those who worship much. Allahu ta’ala will remove hatred and jealousy from his heart. Thawab as much as the number of Believers will be recorded for him. On the Day of Judgment, all Believers will say, “O my Rabb, this servant of Yours used to say istighfar for us, so forgive him.”) [Miftah-un-Najat]
We should be thankful for the state we are in. For example, we may say:
“Alhamdulillahi ‘alaa kulli haal siwal kufri wad-dalal.” It means, “Praise is due to Allah in all circumstances except disbelief and heresy.”
A similar du’a with a slight difference in wording is as follows:
“Alhamdulillahi ‘alaa kulli haal wa a’oodhu billahi min haal-i ahlin-naar.” It means, “Praise is due to Allah in all circumstances. I seek refuge with Allah from the condition of the people of Hell.”
Question: When one is making du’a, should one keep one’s hands inclined toward one’s face?
During du’a, the palms should face the sky, not the face. They should be raised to chest level.
The hands should not be close together, but they should be apart from each other. (Fatawa-i Hindiyya, Durr-ul-Mukhtar)
A woman does not stretch her hands forward while making du’a, but she keeps them inclined toward her face. Today, unfortunately, a large number of men make du’a in the same way as women do.
Question: What is the correct time for making du’a after salat?
Du’a is made after tasbihaat (that is, after saying Subhanallah, Alhamdulillah, and Allahu akbar, 33 times each).
Question: Should we say the prayer “Allahumma antas-salaam wa minkas-salaam …” only after fard salats?
After every salat, be it fard, wajib, sunnat, or nafilah, one should say “Allahumma antas-salaam wa minkas-salaam tabaarakta yaa dhal jalaali wal ikraam” following the salam. After performing post-fard sunnat salat or after performing final salat, one should say “Astaghfirullah al-azeem alladhee laa ilaaha illaa huwal hayyal qayyooma wa atoobu ilayh” three times. Then one should recite Ayat al-Kursi, say the tasbihaat, and make du’a. It is very good to say “Yaa Allah yaa Allah yaa hayyu yaa qayyoomu ya dhal jalaali wal ikraam asaluka an tuhyiya qalbee bi noori marifatika abadan yaa Allah yaa Allah” when making du’a.
Question: Is it bid’at to say “Subhanallah, Alhamdulillah, Allahu akbar” after salat?
It is sunnat-i muakkada established by ijma’ (consensus). It is permissible to count tasbihaat on fingers or on a masbaha. The Messenger of Allah saw a woman counting tasbihaat on seeds and did not forbid her. This event shows that it is permissible to count tasbihaat on stones, seeds, or a masbaha. (Radd-ul-Mukhtar)
The words baaqiyaat-us-saalihaat (everlasting good deeds) are mentioned in the Qur’an al-karim. The Messenger of Allah said:
(Say baaqiyaat-us-saalihaat plenty of times. These are tasbih, tahlil, tahmid, takbir, and tamjid.) [Tabarani]
[Tasbih means Subhanallah,
Tahlil means Laa ilaaha illallah,
Takbir means Allahu akbar,
Tamjid means Laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billah.]
It is declared in hadith-i sharifs:
(Whoever says “Subhanallah” 33 times, “Alhamdulillah” 33 times,” Allahu akbar” 33 times and completes it with “Laa ilaaha illallahu wahdahu laa shareeka lah lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu wa huwa ‘alaa kulli shay’in qadeer” after every salat, he will have all his sins pardoned even if they may be as much as the foam on the sea.) [Muslim]
(Keep on tasbih and tahlil by counting them on the tips of the fingers. On the Day of Judgment, each organ will be called to account. It will be said about fingers, “He used them for tasbihaat.” The one who is ghafil [preoccupied with nafs, so forgetful of Allahu ta’ala] will be away from mercy.) [Hakim]
(There is no one better than a person who has grown old as a Muslim due to his takbir, tahmid, tasbih, and tahlil.) [Imam-i Ahmad]
When the poor ones said, “O the Messenger of Allah, the rich people outdo us in rank and blessings. We perform salat, and they also perform salat. We fast, and they also fast. However, they give zakat and alms, and they free slaves, whereas we cannot do any of them,” our Master the Prophet stated:
“I will teach you phrases by which you will be able to catch up with those whose ranks are higher than yours and by which you will be able to outdo those whose ranks are lower than yours. No one will acquire your ranks except those who do what you do: after every salat, say ‘Subhanallah’ 33 times, ‘Alhamdulillah’ 33 times, ‘Allahu akbar’ 33 times and complete it by saying ‘Laa ilaaha illallahu wahdahu laa shareeka lah lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu wa huwa ‘alaa kulli shay’in qadeer’ once.” When the poor ones said, “The rich people perform the tasbihaat as we do, and they outdo us again,” the Messenger of Allah stated, “This is Allahu ta’ala’s gift, and He gives it to whomever He wills.” [Abu Dawud]
Hadrat Imam-i Rabbani states:
A person who is performing salat is entreating his/her Rabb and sees that everything other than Him is equal to nothing. The defects in performing salat are covered with tasbih (saying Subhanallah). In this way, it is professed that not a worthy or perfect worship could be done. Knowing that being blessed with performing salat is through His help and His making it possible, one thanks for this great blessing by saying tahmid (saying Alhamdulillah). And by saying takbir (saying Allahu akbar), it is professed that no one besides Him is worthy of being worshiped. (Vol. 1, Letter 304)
Question: Is there anything wrong with saying tasbihaat after salat more than 33 times?
When saying tasbihaat after salat, one should be careful with the number 33. There are many hidden divine reasons in the commandments of our religion. The specific numbers that have been stated by Islam are like the dose of a medicine. If one exceeds the recommended dose, one cannot benefit from the medicine. The treasure is at 33. If one goes forward or backward by a meter, one cannot find the treasure. It is bid’at to say them 40 times or more instead of 33 times with the intention of earning more thawab. One will not be sinful if one leaves without saying tasbihaat, but one will be destitute of the thawab of sunnat.
Question: When the imam starts to make du’a, can one who has not performed tasbihaat join the du’a of the imam?
It is better to join the du’a after saying tasbihaat.
Question: When performing tasbihaat, is it permissible to use the left hand out of necessity?
Of course, it is permissible. The matters concerning our Master the Prophet’s beginning good things from the right-hand side, his style of attirement, his eating and drinking habits are called sunnat-i zawaid. There is nothing wrong with omitting them forgetfully or due to an excuse. (Hadiqa)
It is sunnat to do good deeds with the right hand. There is no harm in doing them with the left hand, but it is excellent to follow our Master the Prophet in all activities.
Question: Do we have to say tasbihaat as loudly as we can hear what we are saying?
Yes, you do.
Question: Which is more rewarding (thawab): counting the tasbihaat on one’s fingers or on a masbaha?
After salat, it is sunnat to count them on one’s fingers. However, for those who lose count because of having difficulty keeping one’s mind on them, it is more rewarding to count them on a masbaha. For those who do not fail to keep track of tasbihaat, it is preferable to use their fingers. For those who fail to keep track of them, it is preferable to use a masbaha. Contrary to what some people think, it does not go against sunnat to use a masbaha.
Question: Is it permissible to use a masbaha made of amber or silver beads?
Yes, it is permissible.
Question: I perform salats slowly. For this reason, when I complete salat and am about to start saying tasbihaat, a person begins reciting the Qur’an loudly. Should I listen to it and say tasbihaat after the recitation, or should I say tasbihaat while it is being recited?
It is fard (obligatory) to listen to the Qur’an al-karim while it is being recited. You cannot earn the thawab equaling it even if you say the tasbihaat for a thousand years because a nafilah act of worship is not even a drop of water compared with an ocean. For this reason, you should prefer the fard act; that is, you should listen to the Qur’an al-karim. You should not even perform a nafilah or sunnat salat when the Qur’an al-karim is being recited.
Question: Is it permissible to make du’a before or after fard salats by prostrating oneself on the ground?
One should not make du’a in sajda position during salat. One can make du’a by prostrating oneself on the ground any time other than during fard salats. However, one should not do it during the interval between a sunnat salat and a fard salat or a fard salat and a sunnat salat. One is allowed to make du’a in sajda position during a nafilah salat.
Question: When it is very cold in winter, is it permissible to say tasbihaat and the other prayers in bed after performing salat?
Yes, it is permissible.
Question: Is it makruh to always make the same du’a after salat?
It is not makruh if one brings about a presence of heart and mind during du’a. What is makruh is to memorize a du’a and to say it in a poetic form. That is, what is makruh is to repeat it parrot fashion. However, it is not makruh to always say the same phrases with an attentive heart, so that one knows what one wants.
Question: Is it bid’at to count tasbihaat or dhikr phrases on an electronic counter?
Counting something is not an act of worship, but a habitual practice. Riding a camel is sunnat-i zawaid, but traveling somewhere on a car or plane does not go against sunnat. Likewise, counting tasbihaat on an electronic counter is not bid’at. However, using such devices in the company of people makes the user the centre of attention. For this reason, it may lead to ostentation and show off, so one should use it in one’s pocket or in private.
Hadrat Ibn Abidin states:
"Our Master the Prophet saw a woman counting tasbihaat on seeds, and he did not forbid her from it. This event shows that it is permissible to count tasbihaat on stones, seeds, or a masbaha."
Our Master the Prophet would explain the most basic and important part of a matter. For example, he said, “Call out the adhan at a high place.” For this reason, it cannot be said that calling it out from a minaret goes against sunnat. A memoir of our spiritual guide clarifies the matter at hand very well:
“When I was a teacher at a high school, one of my students asked me, ‘Sir, does a Muslim who is killed in wartime die martyr?’ I answered, ‘Yes, he/she does.’ He asked again, ‘Did the Prophet inform us of that?’ I replied, ‘Yes, he did.’ He continued, ‘Does he die a martyr if he/she drowns in the sea or if he/she falls from a plane or helicopter?’ I answered, ‘Yes, he/she does.’ He said, ‘Did our Master the Prophet inform us of that?’ I said, ‘Yes, he did.’ Then he said heroically, ‘Sir, was there a plane and a helicopter then?’ I explained, ‘Our Master the Prophet was jami-ul-kalim. He stated many facts in one word or sentence. He said, ‘He who falls from a height will become a martyr.’ Then the student said, ‘Oh, I see.’”
As it is seen, one who falls from a height, be it from a horse, a minaret, or an aerial tramway, and as a result dies will be a martyr. It cannot be said, “There were not minarets or aerial tramways then.”
Question: Which supplication should we say after salat in order to ask Allah for Paradise and in order to be protected against Hell?
It is stated in a hadith-i sharif:
(If a person does not say on completion of salat, "Allahumma ajirnee min-an-naar wa ad-khil-nil Jannata" without talking before it, angels will say, "Woe to him! He has been incapable of asking for protection from Hell." Paradise will say, "Woe to him! He has been incapable of asking for Paradise.") [Tabarani]
This supplication means, “O my Rabb, protect me from Hell, and take me into Paradise.” It may be recited after salat while one is making du’a. What is meant by the words “on completion of salat” is the time that starts after one has said the tasbihaat and made du’a. To say it before tasbihaat will be bid’at. If one says this supplication after making du’a, even after talking, one will earn the reward promised.