Question: What are the makruhs of wudu'?
They are as follows:
1. To extend the feet toward the qibla when washing them.
2. To open the private parts when performing wudu'.
3. To waste water and to use it more than needed.
4. To use a little water as if rubbing oil.
5. To wash the face by splashing water on it with force.
6. To blow over the water one uses for wudu'.
7. To talk when performing wudu'.
8. To spit or expel mucus into the water or basin one is using for wudu'.
9. To let water get into the throat while gargling.
10. To shut the eyes or to open them wide.
11. To start with the left bodily parts [in acts of wudu'].
12. To blow the nose by using the right hand.
13. To put water in the mouth or nose by using the left hand.
14. To make wudu' with the water heated under the sun.
15. To turn one's back toward the qibla.
16. Not to avoid the water used in wudu'.
17. To talk about worldly things.
18. To wash the parts more than or less than three times.
Question: What are the improper acts done during wudu'?
Some of them are as follows:
1. It is makruh to turn one’s front or back toward the qibla when defecating or urinating in the toilet or outdoors.
2. It is haram to open one’s private parts near someone in order to clean them.
3. One must not use one's right hand for cleaning one's private parts [after using the toilet].
4. When there is no water, it is makruh to make taharah (to clean the private parts) with food products, manure, bones, animals’ food, coal, someone else’s property, a piece of flowerpot or tile, reeds, leaves, and a piece of cloth or paper.
5. One should not wash the bodily parts much more or less than the prescribed limit. Washing them more or less than three times is makruh.
6. One must not close one’s mouth and eyes tightly. If even a tiny part of the outward part of the lips or the eyelids is left dry, the wudu' will not be acceptable.
7. One must not make masah on one’s head, ears, or neck more than once after wetting the hands each time. But it can be repeated without wetting the hands again.
8. While performing wudu', one should not talk about worldly things unless there is necessity to do so.
Warning: Unless there is a strong necessity, the following eleven rules must be obeyed:
1. A person whose both hands have been amputated cannot make taharah (cleaning of the private parts). Instead, he makes tayammum by rubbing his arms on some soil and his face against a wall. If there is a wound on his face too, he performs salat without making wudu' and must not miss it.
2. If a person is sick, his wife, children, sisters, or brothers may help him perform his wudu'.
3. Making taharah with stones and the like is the same as making it with water.
4. If a person who went mad or fainted did not recover within 24 hours, he would not have to make up (qada) his missed salats when he recovered. He who loses consciousness by taking alcohol, opium, or medicine must make up each missed salat. A person who is so heavily ill that he cannot even perform the salat by moving his head while lying down, even if he is conscious, is exempted from performing salat. However, this state must go on for more than 24 hours.
5. It is mustahab to use special pajamas or clothes and to cover the head when entering the toilet.
6. When entering the toilet, one must not hold something in one’s hand containing Allah’s name or pieces of writing from the Qur’an al-karim. There is no harm if they are in one’s pocket. There is no harm in having an amulet, either.
7. One should enter the toilet with one’s left foot and go out with one’s right foot.
8. One should not talk in the toilet.
9. One must not look at one’s private parts or at the waste material or spit into the toilet.
10. In the toilet, one must not eat or drink anything, sing, smoke, or chew gum.
11. One must not urinate into any water, on a wall of a mosque, in a cemetery, or onto any road.
Question: It is said that one must not urinate or defecate into any water. Does this prohibition also include the water in toilets?
No, it does not include the water in toilets. In fact, toilets are the places where people urinate and defecate. The water which is improper for one to urinate into is that which humans or animals drink or which humans use. Rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, pools, and puddles are of this kind.
Question: In wudu', it is makruh to wash a bodily part less or more than three times. Is it makruh if I wash a part four times by mistake? Additionally, if I, while performing salat, say the phrases repeated during ruku or sajda four times instead of three times by mistake, what does it entail?
Forgetting, erring, and being mistaken are considered excuses in our religion. If one, while making wudu', doubts whether one has washed a limb twice or three times, one should wash it one more time and that is all. Even if this last washing is the fourth washing, it will not be considered makruh because one has not done so deliberately. The phrases repeated during ruku and sajda should be recited in odd numbers, such as 3 or 5 or 7 or 9 or 11 times. If one makes a mistake and recites them in even numbers, such as 4 or 6 times, there is no problem at all.
Question: When performing wudu', I sometimes doubt whether I have washed a limb three times or twice. Because it is maktuh to wash an organ less than or more than three times, what should I do in such a case?
If you frequently experience such doubts, they are considered satanic whispers. So there is no need to do anything. If you seldom experience them, you should wash the part in question one more time. Then it will not be makruh even if you have washed it four times, for you have not washed it four times on purpose. What is makruh is to wash an organ less than or more than three times deliberately.
Question: Is it makruh to make wudu' with water heated by solar energy?
If it is heated by solar energy by the use of devices, the wudu' will not be makruh. But if it is warmed by being left under the sun, it will be makruh tanzihi.
Question: It is written in the book Endless Bliss, "After one performs a salat, it is mustahab to renew wudu' for the subsequent salat though one is in a state of wudu'." However, it is written in another section of it, "It is makruh to renew wudu' before one uses the wudu' he has performed." What is the difference between these two?
After making wudu', if one renews it without having used it, e.g., if one has not touched the Mus-haf or if one has not performed salat, etc, it will be makruh. If one renews it after having used it, it is mustahab and considered light upon light. It is declared in three hadith-i sharifs:
(If I did not know that I would be putting my Ummah to hardship, I would order them to make wudu' [even if they have wudu'] every time they will perform salat.) [Imam-i Ahmad]
(Ten rewards are written for him who makes wudu' though he is in a state of wudu'.) [Tirmidhi]
(Wudu' upon wudu' is light upon light.) [Ihya, Durr-ul mukhtar]
Question: When performing wudu' in cold weather, am I considered to be wasting water if I turn on the tap fully in order for water to get hot?
You are not considered to be wasting water because you do not do it deliberately.
Question: When I stand toward the qibla while performing wudu', my knees face the qibla when I put my foot into the sink. Is there anything wrong with it?
Extending one's feet toward the qibla direction is makruh. One should either change one's position or wash one's feet at another sink if there is.
Question: Am I considered to be wasting water if I leave the tap running while performing wudu'?
If you turn on the tap a little, you will not be considered to be wasting water.
Question: Is it necessary to wash the rear organ after passing wind?
Washing it after passing wind is makruh, but it is necessary to wash it if fecal matter has come out with the wind.
Question: Is it makruh to brush the teeth after wudu'?
No, it is not makruh. However, it may cause the gums to bleed, thus breaking the wudu'. Therefore, it is better if they are brushed before wudu'.
Question: Is there anything wrong with pouring the water used in wudu' around the base of a tree?
There is nothing wrong with it.