Question: If one is unable to find water for wudu' and also lacks materials on which to do tayammum, can one follow the Hanbali Madhhab and offer salat without wudu' and tayammum so that one can offer it within its time?
Being left without any materials on which to do tayammum is nearly impossible because one will most probably get a chance to do tayammum on soil, marble, stone, a brick, a tile, unglazed earthenware, sand, lime, dust of soil, and so on. A person who knows the importance of salat should carry with him or her one of these things. Despite this, if one is unable to do tayammum, one can combine two salats. For example, if one has not been able to perform, say, Salat az-Zuhr, it is highly unlikely to happen that one will not be able to find water or a material with which to do tayammum, until the sun sets. This may be the case when one is put in prison or a cell.
If a person in prison is unable to find a clean place, water, and soil, he should (when the time for a salat comes) pretend to be performing salat without reciting anything. He must repeat all these salats after he is set free. (İslam Ahlakı)
If one does not have anything with which to do tayammum and it is not possible for him or her to combine two salats, only then can he or she follow the Hanbali Madhhab and offer salat without tayammum.
According to the Hanbali Madhhab, if one is unable to find water and soil, one can offer salat without wudu' and tayammum. In such a case, one must observe only the obligatory elements of salat as well as those elements necessary for the validity of salat. One must not do sunnat and recommended elements. (Al-Fiqh ala al-Madhahib al-Arbaah)