Question: The Qur'an al-karim says, "It is Allah who creates you and what you do." Also, a hadith-i sharif says that it is Allah who creates good and evil. It is inferred from these texts that Allahu ta'ala permits a disbeliever to commit disbelief. What is the reason for it?
Hadrat Imam-i Baghawi states:
The knowledge of qada' and qadar is one of the secrets that Allahu ta’ala has hidden from His slaves. He has not disclosed this knowledge to the closest angels or even to His Prophets who are owners of Shari'ats! This knowledge is a great ocean. No one is permitted to dive into this ocean or to talk about qadar. We must know the following: Allahu ta’ala creates human beings. Some of them are shaqi (wretched) and will remain in Hell. Others are sa’id (blessed) and will enter Paradise. When a person asked Hadrat Ali about qadar, he said, “It is a dark way. Do not walk on this way!” When he was asked again, he said, “It is a deep sea.” He was asked again. This time he said: “Qadar is Allahu ta’ala’s secret. He has hidden this knowledge from you” (Endless Bliss).
Hadrat Sharaf ad-din Ahmad ibn Yahya Muniri wrote in one of his letters:
There was a man who had spent his life glorifying Allahu ta'ala and performing acts of worship for many years in the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. Because he did not learn ikhlas (doing everything for the sake of Allah; being distant from show and ostentation) and the conditions of acts of worship, when he neglected one sajdah (prostration), he lost so much that he was utterly destroyed. However, because the As’hab al-kahf’s dog walked for a few steps behind the righteous ones, it was promoted so high that it was not demoted back though it was dirty [it will enter Paradise]. This fact is very astonishing; men of knowledge have not been able to solve this riddle for centuries. The human reason cannot comprehend the reason hidden in it. Allahu ta’ala told Adam ’alaihis-salam not to eat wheat, but He willed him to eat it because He knew in the eternal past that he would eat it. He commanded Satan to prostrate before Adam ’alaihis-salam, but He willed him not to prostrate. He said we should look for Him, but He did not will that attainment for those who do not have ikhlas. [On these matters] the wayfarers on the Divine Way said nothing but that they were never able to understand. (70th Letter)
Allahu ta'ala's knowing with His eternal knowledge whether humans will do good or evil deeds is not interference in their deeds against their will. Both good-doers and evil-doers do their deeds of their own accord and by their free will. If it were not so, it would be meaningless to reward good-doers and to punish evil-doers. In short, about the issue of qada' and qadar, it suffices to know what has been explained above.