Question: Some people say, "Embracing Islam and finding the true path are something related to qada' and qadar." Since it is Allah who creates qadar, why does He create other people unfortunate? Is His creating so compatible with justice?
Allahu ta'ala does not create anyone a disbeliever. He knows with His eternal knowledge all the things that happened and will happen. For example, He knows whether or not a certain disbeliever will remain a disbeliever forever. He knows all the things that will happen the way they will happen. Let us explain this issue with an example: The times when the sun will rise and set during a year are calculated and written on charts and timetables. And the sun rises and sets at those times written beforehand. However, the reason why it rises or sets at calculated times is not that they were written so on charts and timetables. Their having been written does not affect sunrise or sunset. Because Allahu ta'ala foreknows what will befall humans, He recorded it in al-Lawh al-Mahfuz. The reason why Allahu ta'ala has stated that some people will be unfortunate is that they want to remain in disbelief of their own volition and do not want to believe. They do not remain in disbelief as Allahu ta'ala has informed us about it. The Qur'an al-karim says (what means):
(By Allahu ta'ala, who gave the nafs good and evil [ability to obey and disobey, that is, the right to choose one of them; partial will], he who has purified his nafs and who has purged it of disbelief and disobedience has been saved. He who has left it in them has suffered a loss.) [Ash-Shams 7-10]
Humans are free in using their partial will. They are not compelled. That is, if they use their partial will in goodness, Allahu ta'ala creates goodness. If they spend it in evil, He creates evil. Humans use their partial will, and Allahu ta'ala creates [what they want]. (The pamphlet "Iradah al-Juz'iyyah")
This means to say that He creates goodness for him who wills it, and that person is considered fortunate. He creates evil for him who wills it, and that person is considered unfortunate. There is no compulsion. In other words, Allahu ta'ala does not force anyone to sin. Nor does He guide anyone to Hell by force. In conclusion, there is nothing incompatible with justice.