Question: A writer claims, The Qurān contains no statement saying all humans were created from Ādam and Hawwā (Eve). Creating the first cell, Allah brought all living creatures into being from this cell. When human beings came to the phases of creation after their evolutionary developments in different continents, Allah may have created various humans with His power. If it is said that they descended from a single mother and father, then no explanation can be provided for the diversity in their blood groups and skin colors. Is it possible for the four blood groups to come into existence from only two individuals? Can only two people have black, white, and fair-skinned children? The Quranic verses state that the human underwent evolutionary processes and was created in this way. By saying so, he not only denies the fact that the humankind descended from Hadrat Ādam but also talks about the theory of evolution. What answer should be given to this claim?
According to such people, it is as if our master the Prophet had not ever come into this world and had not explained any āyāt (Quranic verses). They purposely make no mention of the clarifications of the Messenger of Allah. Does this religion not have an Owner and a Prophet? Is it normal for everyone to be talking all at once? Why on earth do they not relate the explanations of the Messenger of Allah and what the mufassīr scholars, the inheritors of him, have transmitted? Now, let us have a look at the Qurān al-karīm:
(Fear your Lord, who created you from a single soul and who created from that his mate and who created from them both many men and women.) [Sūrat-un-Nisā 1]
(It is Allah who created you from a single soul [Ādam] and who created from that his mate [Hawwā].) [Sūrat-ul-Arāf 189]
(O mankind! We created you from a male and a female. We separated you into nations and tribes so that you would meet one another.) [Sūrat-ul-Hujurāt 13]
(Allah chose Ādam, Nūh, the family of Ibrāhīm, and the family of Imrān, who were in the same line of descent, and exalted them over the worlds.) [Sūrat-u Āl-i Imrān 33]
(O sons of Ādam! Let not Shaitān deceive you as he got your parents out of Paradise.) [Sūrat-ul-Arāf 27]
(In the sight of Allah, the case of Īsā is like the case of Ādam. Allah created him [Ādam] from soil and then said to him, Be! and he was.) [Sūrat-u Āl-i Imrān 59]
When addressing humans, Allahu taālā says, Yā banī Ādama = O sons of Ādam. [Sūrat-ul-Arāf 26, 27, 31, 35, 172] (These verses demonstrate that all humans are descendants of Hadrat Ādam.)
(Walaqad karamnā banī Ādama = We have made the sons of Ādam honorable.) [Sūrat-ul-Isrā 70] This āyah, too, shows that human beings are descendants of Hadrat Ādam.
The first human was created from mud. His descendants were created from a sperm drop. After various phases, this semen drop grew into flesh, bones, and finally a human. (Sūrat-ul-Muminūn 12-14, Sūrat-us-Sajdah 7-9, Sūrat-ul-Hajj 5, Sūrat-ul-Mumin 67) The writer (mentioned above) calls these phases evolutionary processes.
Let us go on to discuss blood groups (types):
The writer may not have knowledge of biology. But could he not ask a knowledgeable person about it? Or Is he writing incorrectly on purpose even though asking a person about it first? Biologists say:
A childs blood type can be different from its parents:
A childs blood type is the same as either its fathers or its mothers. It is sometimes the same as that of both its parents or is not the same as that of any of them. If it had not been within the realms of possibility that the blood type of a child could be different from the blood types of its parents, there would have been only two blood types on earth, because all humans descended from a male and a female.
If the blood type of Ādam alaihis-salām is A and that of Hadrat Hawwā is B or if the opposite is true, they can have children with A, B, AB, and O blood types. The reason is that A and B blood types is either homozygous (AA or BB) or heterozygous (AO or BO).
If both parents have homozygous blood types (AA or BB), they will always have children with homozygous blood types (AA or BB). If the blood types of Ādam alaihis-salām and our mother Hadrat Hawwā had been AA and BB, then the blood types of all humans would have been only A, B or AB. If their blood types were heterozygous (AO or BO), then people with various blood groups would exist, as is the case now, because the half of genotypes of heterozygous A and B blood types are composed of the gene O. That is, the genotype of A is AO and that of B is BO. According to the Rh factor, there are two types of blood, which are Rh+ and Rh-. Similarly, Rh+ is either homozygous (RhRh) or heterozygous (Rhrh). Rh- is always homozygous (rhrh).
A father and a mother with a heterozygous Rh+ blood can have a child who is either Rh+ or Rh-. Accordingly, a father and a mother with heterozygous Rh+, heterozygous A, and heterozygous B blood types can have children who are Rh+, Rh-, A, B, AB, or O. Even if the blood types of Hadrat Ādam and our mother Hadrat Hawwā were Rh+, A, and B, all kinds of blood groups could come into existence, which is the case today. That is, it is not necessary that one of them should be Rh+, and the other, Rh-.
In the past years, it was asked in a question of biology in an examination which pair of parents with given blood types could have children with all kinds of blood types. Today, blood types play an important role in paternity determination in forensic medicine as well.
Pregnancy, puerperium, narcosis, radiotherephy, and arsenical drugs sometimes change the blood type a person has. When a persons blood type changes, his or her blood type may be dissimilar to the blood types of both his or her parents. Therefore, the blood types of children who are born to the same parents are not of two kinds. Blood types are examined according to systems. For example, besides ABO and Rh blood group systems, other blood typing systems are known. It is said that there are also other unknown systems. Each blood typing system works separately from other systems. In medicinal practices, that is, in blood type incompatibilities related to disorders and treatment, the well-known ABO and Rh systems, which are mentioned above, are important.
The four blood groups
There are four types of blood groups in the ABO system:
1. People with type O blood carry the O and O genes (OO), and they are homozygous (possessing two identical genes).
2. People with type A blood carry either the A and O genes (AO, heterozygous = possessing dissimilar genes) or A and A genes (homozygous AA).
3. People with type B blood carry either the B and B (homozygous BB) genes or B and O (heterozygous BO) genes.
4. People with type AB blood carry the A and B genes (heterozygous AB).
For example, the half of total sperm number of a man with a heterozygous type A blood (AO) carries the A gene, and the other half of it carries the O gene. If he has, for instance, 500 sperms, 250 of them carry the A gene and 250 of them carry the O gene. Similarly, the half of total number of ova of a female with a heterozygous type B blood carries the B gene and the other half of it carries the O gene. When a male and a female who have these specific characteristics marry, they can have children with any of the possible blood types in the ABO system, namely, A, B, AB, and O.
Let us explain this:
1. If ones ovum or sperm having the A gene forms an embryo with the others gamete having the O gene, they will have a child with A (AO) blood group.
2. If the B gene unites with the O gene, they will have a child or children with B (BO) blood group.
3. If the A gene unites with the B gene, they will have a child or children with AB blood group.
4. If the gene O unites with the gene O, they will have a child or children with O (OO) blood group.
According to the Rh system, likewise, if a heterozygous Rh+ person, that is, a person with + and - genes, marries a person with Rh+ blood group, they can have children with both Rh+ and Rh- blood groups. If two heterozygous Rh+ people marry, they can have both Rh+ and Rh- children.
In the system above, A, B, and (+) genes are dominant to O and (-) genes and mask (hide) their specific characteristics.
So is the case with other blood group systems.