Question: What to say in return to people who say, “If Allah exists, there must be a scientifically verifiable proof. Modern people, like us, do not believe in a thing blindly. We investigate the causes of everything”?
All scientists, save for the exceptions, have declared unanimously that this universe did not come into existence by itself and that it has a Creator. No matter how much progress science makes, humans can never create an ant, a bird or a fish. When a wise and learned person observes the universe, (s)he will see that it has been created in a perfect order and harmony and understand that it did not come into existence by itself.
We come to know our surroundings through our five senses. If it were not for our sense organs, we would not know of anything. We would not even know of ourselves. We would not walk, find out anything, do anything, eat, drink, or live. We would not have parents nor would we exist. We would not understand the things pleasing to our souls, hear sweet sounds or see beautiful things. If we thank our Allah ceaselessly only for our sense organs, still we will not have adequately expressed our gratitude.
We call anything which affects our sense organs being or existence. Sand, water, the sun are all beings, for we see them. Sound is a being, too, for we hear it. Air is a being because we feel the air strike when we open our hand and wave it like a fan. Also, the wind strikes our face. Likewise, cold and hot are beings, for we feel them through our skin.
Moreover, we believe in the existence of energies [powers], such as electricity, heat, and magnetism. We perceive and comprehend that electric currents cause heat, electro-magnetism or chemical reaction; when heat occurs the temperature rises and when it decreases it gets cold. We also understand that a magnet attracts iron. We say that it is wrong to say, “I don’t believe in the existence of air, heat or electricity because I don’t see them.” Although they are not seen, we perceive them or their effects through our sense organs. Therefore, we believe in many beings that cannot be seen. We say that things are not necessarily nonexistent because they are not seen. By the same token, it is wrong to say, “I don’t believe in Allah. There are no such things as angels or genies. I would see them if they existed. Since I don’t see them, I don’t believe them.” It is a statement contrary to mind and science.
As shown by science, beings that have weight and volume are called substances. Accordingly, air, water, stone and wood are substances. Light and electric currents are beings, yet they are not substances. Substances with shapes are called objects. A nail, a shovel, pincers and a pin are objects. They are all made of the same matter, iron. The cause that makes a stationary object move or that makes a moving object stop or that changes its movement is called force. Unless a force acts on a stationary object, it remains stationary; it cannot move. Unless a force acts on a moving object, its movement does not change; it never stops.
Substances, objects, and energies existing in substances, altogether, are called ‘âlam or nature. Every object in nature continuously moves, changes. This means that every object is affected by various forces every moment, thus a change takes place. The change that takes place in substances is called an event.
Have the parts of an automobile been brought together by the forces of nature?
We see that some things cease to exist while other things come into being. Our ancestors, ancient people, as well as their buildings and cities, ceased to exist. And after us, others will come into being. According to scientific knowledge, there are forces affecting these tremendous changes. Those who disbelieve Allahu ta’âlâ say, “These are all done by nature. Everything is created by the forces of nature.” If we ask them, “Have the parts of an automobile been brought together by the forces of nature? Have they been heaped together like a pile of rubbish which has been brought together by flowing water with the effects of waves striking from this and that direction? Does a car move with the exertion of the forces of nature?” Will they not smile and say, “Of course, it is impossible. A car is a work of art which a number of people have built by working together strenuously and by using all their mental abilities to design it. A car is operated by a driver who drives it carefully, using his mind while obeying the traffic laws?”
Likewise, every being in nature is also a work of art. A leaf is an astounding factory. A grain of sand or a living cell is an exhibition of fine art, which science has explored to only a small extent today. What we boast about as a scientific finding and accomplishment today is the result of being able to see and copy a few of these fine arts in nature. Even Darwin, the British scientist whom Islam’s adversaries present as their leader, had to admit: “Whenever I think of the structure of the eye, I feel as if I will go mad.” Could people who would not admit that a car is made by chance, by the forces of nature, say that nature has created this universe, which is entirely a work of art? Of course, they could not. Should they not believe that it has been made by a creator, who has calculation, design, knowledge, and infinite power? Is it not ignorance and idiocy to say, “Nature has created it” or “it has come into being by chance”?
He created everything in the best form and for the most useful purposes
Allahu ta’âlâ created everything in the best form and for the most useful purposes. For example, He created this spherical earth one hundred and fifty million kilometers away from the sun. If He had created it at a distance longer than this, there would have been no warm seasons, and we would have died from the cold. If He had created it at a distance shorter than this, it would have been very hot; hence, no living creatures would have been able to exist.
The air around us is a mixture of 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, and 0,0003 carbon dioxide. Oxygen comes into our cells, burns the food there so that power and strength are provided for us. If the amount of oxygen in the air had been more than this, our cells would have been burned by the oxygen, too; therefore, we would have become ashes. If its percentage had been less than 21, it would not have been adequate enough to burn the food in our cells, and again there would have been no living creatures
During rainy and thunderous days, oxygen mixes with nitrogen and nitrogenous salts are formed in the sky; they fall to the earth with the rain. They feed the plants. Plants are food for animals, and animals are food for human beings. Therefore, it is understood that our sustenance is produced in the sky and rains down from there. The carbon dioxide in the air stimulates the centers of the heart and breathing in the cerebellum; that is, it makes them work. When the amount of carbon dioxide in the air becomes less, our hearts will stop, and we will not be able to breathe. On the other hand, if its percentage increases, we will choke. The amount of carbon dioxide in the air should never be changed. In order to keep it in the same consistency, He created the seas. When the amount of carbon dioxide in the air increases, its pressure increases, too, and the excessive amounts are dissolved in the seas. After uniting with the carbonate in the water, it is converted into bi-carbonate. This goes down under the sea and forms a layer of mud there. When the amount of carbon dioxide decreases in the air, it leaves the mud, passes in the water, and then passes from water into the air. No living creature can live without air. That is why air is given to every living creature everywhere, free of charge, without any effort, and sent into their lungs. We cannot live without water, either. He created water everywhere, too. But since it is possible to live without water for some time, it has been created in a way that forces people to look for it and then to carry it away. Aside from man’s ability to utilize those facts above, how fortunate for them to be able to see and to understand them.
Ten pebbles and innumerable kinds of orders in the universe
Statements and claims of those who say “chance existences” about these countless beings created by Allahu ta’âlâ with explicit order and harmony are ignorant and contrary to positive science. For example: Let us put ten pebbles numbered from one to ten in a bag. Let us then take them out of the bag one by one with our hand, trying to take them out successively, that is, number one first, number two second, and eventually number ten last. If any pebble taken out does not follow this numerical order, all the pebbles taken out so far will be put back into the bag and we shall have to try again beginning with number one first. The probability of taking out ten pebbles successively in numerical order is one in ten billion. Therefore, since the probability of drawing ten pebbles in numerical order is extremely weak, it is surely impossible that innumerable kinds of orders in the universe came into existence only by chance.
Is it possible to form a book by pressing on the keys arbitrarily?
If one who does not know how to type presses on the keys of a typewriter, let’s say, five times at random, to what extent would it be possible for the resulting five-letter word to express some meaning in English or any other language? If one wanted to type a sentence by pressing on the keys heedlessly, could one type a meaningful sentence? Now, if a page or a book were to be formed by pressing on the keys arbitrarily, could a person be called intelligent who expects the book or the page to have a certain topic by chance?
Matter has a beginning
If it is said, “Things cease to exist, while other things come into being as a result of them. But 105 elements do not cease to exist; changes only take place in their electronic structure,” however, radio-active events have also shown that elements, and even their atoms, cease to exist, and that matter turns into energy. The German physicist Einstein even calculated the mathematical formula for this conversion.
The fact that things and substances have been changing and issuing from one another continuously does not mean that existence itself comes from past eternity. That is, one cannot say, “So it has been, and so it will be.” These changes do have a beginning. To say that the changes have a beginning means that the substances coming into being have a beginning, which in turn means that all of them have been created from nothing while nothing existed. If the substances were not first created out of nothing and if their issuing from one another went far back into eternity, this universe would necessarily be nonexistent now. The existence of the universe in the eternal past would require the pre-existence of other beings to bring it about, and those beings, in turn, would require others to preexist so that they could come into being. The existence of the latter is dependent upon the existence of the former. If the former does not exist, the latter will not exist, either.
Eternity in the past means being without a beginning. To say that something existed in the eternal past means that the first being, that is, the beginning, did not exist. If the first being did not exist, the latter beings could not exist, and consequently nothing could exist. In other words, there could not be a series of beings, each of which requires the pre-existence of another for their own existence. Therefore, all of them would necessarily be nonexistent.
Hence, it has been understood that the present existence of the universe indicates that it has not existed since past eternity, and that there existed an original being, which had been created out of nothing. In other words, we have to accept the fact that beings have been created out of nothing and that today’s beings are the result of a succession of beings coming from those first beings.
The book Sharh-i Mawâqif proves in detail that there is a Creator who creates all classes of beings from nothing, that this Creator should be eternal, that is, should always exist, and that He should exist eternally without changing. Briefly, “to change” means to become something else. When the Creator changes, He becomes something else. His creativeness gets deranged. It is necessary that the Creator will never change and that He will always remain the same. Reasoning from what we have explained, the various classes of beings could not be eternal, and the unchanging Creator must be eternal, He must exist everlastingly. Therefore, there is a Creator who never changes and who is eternal. The name of this never changing creator is Allah.
Meditating on the order among the created beings
It is not possible for a sensible person who studies in medical and scientific universities, who observes the delicate art and balance in the creatures and who sees and understands their delicate relationships to each other, not to believe the greatness, knowledge, and power of Allahu ta’âlâ. A person who does not believe after observing and understanding all of these must be either ignorant or stubborn. Our master the Prophet declared: “Have belief in Allahu ta’âlâ by meditating on the order among the created beings.” It will solidify a person’s belief (îmân) to study astronomy and thereby to discern the systematic order in the movements of the earth, the moon, the sun and all the other heavenly bodies, in their rotations and revolutions, and in the delicate calculations in their distances from one another.
There are multifarious benefits and uses in the creation of mountains, metals, rivers, seas, animals, vegetation, and even microbes. None of them were created for a useless purpose.
Clouds, rain, lightening, thunderbolt, underground waters, energy materials and air, in short, all created beings perform certain functions and services. Mankind, so far, has been able to understand very little about these innumerable services rendered by these innumerable beings. Is it ever possible for mind, which is not capable of understanding the creatures, to comprehend the Creator? Islamic scholars who discerned His greatness and Attributes were bewildered and stated that they realized that it is not possible to understand Him.
The creation of the earth
“Billions of years ago the entire universe consisted of a single piece. Suddenly, a big explosion took place in the middle of that piece. Consequently, the big piece broke into a number of smaller pieces, and each of the smaller pieces began to move in a different direction. Finally, some of the pieces united with one another, forming the so many various planets, galaxies [milky ways], suns, and satellites [moons]. Because there was no resistance left against the initial “big bang” in space, the planets, the satellites, and the galaxies they were in continued to float in space, revolving in their orbits. The world is in a galaxy which contains the sun, too. There are innumerable galaxies in the universe. The universe is an ever-enlarging system. Other galaxies are gradually becoming farther and farther away from the world, because the universe is enlarging continuously. If their speed becomes equal with the speed of light, we will no longer see the galaxies. We have to begin making more powerful telescopes.”
When some scientists were asked when they had reached that conclusion, their answer was, “For the recent sixty years, scientists the world-over have been unanimously sharing this theory.” A period of sixty years is a rather short time within the context of worldly life. It is purported in the Qur’ân al-karîm:
(Do the unbelievers not see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before We clove them asunder?) [Sűrat-ul-Anbiyâ’, 30]
That means to say that it was fourteen hundred years ago when our religion intimated to us the creation of the earth, which scientists have been aware of only for the recent six decades.
Biologists explain the earliest life on the earth as follows: “The first earthly atmosphere contained ammonia, oxygen, and carbonic acid gas. With the effect of thunderbolts, amino-acids came into being from these substances. Billions of years ago protoplasms came into existence in water. These substances developed into the earliest amoebas, whereby the earliest life began in water. Later the living beings that came out to land from water absorbed amino acids from water, giving birth to beings containing proteins in their constructions. As is seen, water is the origin of all living beings, and the earliest living being came into existence in water.”
This fact, which has been discovered recently, is stated in the Qur’ân al-karîm as follows:
(Do disbelievers not know that We made from water every living being?) [Sűrat-ul-Anbiyâ’, 30]
(It is He (Allahu ta’âlâ) Who has created man from water; then He has established relationships of lineage and marriage.) [Sűrat-ul-Furqân, 54]
(Allahu ta’âlâ is far from all sorts of fault or deficiency: He created in pairs all things that the earth produces, as well as their own (human) kind and (other) things of which they have no knowledge.) [Sűrat-u Yâsîn, 36]
In this âyat-i karîma, the expression “and other things of which they have no knowledge” makes references both to botanists and zoologists and to those scientists who will be doing research for new sources, e.g. atomic energy, which humanity will discover gradually in the course of time. As a matter of fact, it is purported:
(And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the variations of your languages and your colors: verily in that are Signs for those who know.) [Sűrat-ur-Rűm, 22]
How will the dead be resurrected?
Although some atheists accept the fact that the entire universe has been created from nothing, they are unable to conceive how the dead, who have been annihilated, will be resurrected. Atheists were called mushriks in the past. One day a muhsrik takes a human bone and comes to the presence of our master Rasűlullah. After breaking it into small pieces and blowing them, he asks defiantly, “You say that the dead will be resurrected and brought to the Gathering Place. How will this decomposed bone be resurrected?” Our master Rasűlullah states, “Certainly, Allahu ta’âlâ, the Creator of the universe, will resurrect it. Similarly, He takes your life, resurrects you and then puts you into Hell.” After that, the following verses were revealed:
(Does man not know that We have created him from a drop of nutfah? But he becomes an open enemy, and without ever contemplating his own creation, he presents an example to Us and says, “Who will give life to these decomposed bones?” O My Messenger, say: “He who brought those bones into existence when they were nonexistent resurrects them.) [Sűrat-u Yâsîn, 77-79]
Three verses stating the Resurrection purport as follows:
(They ask, “Who will resurrect us after we die?” Say, “Allah, who has created you the first time, gives life to you and resurrects you.” Thereupon, they shake their heads at you mockingly and ask, “When will it be?” Say, “It is near.”) [Sűrat-ul-Isrâ’, 51]
(Allah resurrects the dead, and He is fully powerful over everything. The time of Qiyâmah comes; there is certainly no doubt about it. Allah resurrects those who are in the graves and raises them up.) [Sűrat-ul-Hajj, 7]
(On that Day the earth is broken apart, and people rapidly come out of the graves. It is easy for Us to resurrect and gather them.) [Sűrat-u Qaf, 44]
Nothing can come into existence by chance
Question: Is it possible for the things in the universe to come into existence by chance?
Now we are writing these pieces of information by computer. No assertion could be so meaningless as saying that this computer has come into existence by itself and that it does not have a maker. So is the case with other things in the universe. Can this enormous universe be the product of coincidental events? Let us give a simple example:
If we press the keys on a computer keyboard randomly, is it possible for us to form a meaningful sentence? Likewise, if we randomly hit the keys as many times as to form a one-page writing or a full book, could it ever be possible for us to write a full book that is meaningful and has a theme? If it is done by us, it is possible to put forth as many pieces of writing as to fill a book. But could a keyboard write a book that is meaningful and has a theme by itself without anyone intervening? It is definitely not possible.
If we are to make a rowing-boat and move through water, first it is necessary for us find wood, turn it into same-sized timbers, and join them with nails. After these activities, we can row the boat where we want. Could a boat come into existence by itself without there being nails, an adze and a craftsman? Could it move where we want by itself? In other words, a tree has come into existence by itself. It has been cut by itself. It has been turned into timbers by itself. Those timbers were joined with nails and they have become a boat by themselves. This boat has found the sea by itself. It is rowed and moved away by itself. The boat knows its direction and goes where we want. Could this chimerical story be possible? No, of course not.
Today robots that achieve great work are produced. A robot can carry out the activities that are mentioned above in the example of the rowing-boat, but there should be someone who has made this robot. That is, a robot cannot become existent by itself.
Can a person who does not accept that a book, a boat or a computer can come into existence by itself say that this enormous universe, which is a work of art from ground to up, has been created incidentally? Or can one say that unconscious and lifeless nature created it? One cannot say. In such a situation, one is obliged to believe without a shadow of a doubt that it has been created by a creator, who has calculation, design, knowledge, and infinite power.
When we observe the universe, we see that everything is in an order and nothing is disorganized. What a great phenomenon it is that people can remain and live solely by the gravitational force on the earth, a planet which internally is full of molten metal, which revolves at a speed of 1,600 kmph in space. It is very wrong to say that it happens by chance.
When you look at yourself, you see that from a drop of water all your organs—such as eyes, head, blood and nerves—your mind and your soul have been created. Accordingly, you indispensably know that they have not been created by yourself but by a creator. Considering that this stupendous body has come into existence by chance is contrary to reason as well. When reason observes that all organs are in their proper places and that there is nothing missing or redundant in them, it understands the power of the Creator, who has created them from nothing. If it is unable to understand, it signifies the idiocy of that person.
The sun, which sends its light on us, produces the most suitable heat, effects the growth of plants and makes chemical changes in some of them to bring about the existence of flour, sugar, and other nourishing and curative substances. But we know that our globe is only a tiny speck in the universe.
The solar system, which consists of planets revolving around the sun, and to which our earth belongs, is one of the countless systems within the universe. Only one-billionth of sunbeams reach the earth, which is 150 million kilometers from the sun. Even this amount, however, is enough to make earth-atmosphere machine work. That is, necessary conditions are met for all living beings to remain in existence.
The temperature of the sun in its outer portion is 5500°C, and it soars into 20 million degrees in its core. Could it be by chance that this temperature does not decrease even if centuries have passed?
The distance between the earth and the sun is set in such a manner that we get heat only as much as we need. If the distance from the earth to the sun were longer, we would get less heat from the sun, and there would be no living beings because of the cold. If the distance were shorter, this time there would be no living beings because of the heat. Can it be a coincidental existence? One must be an idiot of the highest degree to call it a coincidental existence.
Atmospheric water vapor prevents the earth from getting too cold at night because of radiation loss, thus not causing fruit and vegetables to freeze. In addition to this, it also prevents temperature differences between night and day. Water on the earth either mixes with the air through evaporation or flows below the ground and becomes groundwater. Oceans are the main sources of water.
Water covers three-fourths of the earth’s surface. Spreading over such a wide surface, it enables evaporation in sufficient proportion and regulates precipitation regime. If oceans did not spread over such a wide surface, there would be a considerable decrease in rainfall, which results in dire droughts. Water evaporating from oceans mixes with the air as water vapor. Then it not only falls in oceans again but also spreads over the earth by means of strong winds of the upper layers of the atmosphere. Thus, required humidity reaches different regions. As a result, each region gets water, a divine blessing, in varying amount. Could they be called chance occurrences?
When matter is heated, its volume expands. When it cools, then it contracts. However, water only shrinks until it reaches a temperature of 4°C, then it reverses course and its volume expands as it cools. If it were not for this anomalous property of water, ice sheets on the surfaces of seas and lakes would sink to the bottom. And it would always be repeated at temperatures of 0°C and below, and eventually it would cause all water to become piles of ice sheets, resulting in the death of all aquatic creatures. This property of water cannot be considered a coincidental property because it is obvious that it performs a specified task. It is nothing but idiocy to call a cause which serves a purpose a chance existence.
The efficiency of silk production in the greatest artificial thread factory comprised of automatic machines is far below that of a small silkworm. Which modern factory can manage to manufacture durable cloth from tree leaves as the silkworm does? Who taught the silkworm to eat mulberry leaves and to make silk from them? Does it happen by chance? Why don’t other insects make the same thing? Though it is centuries since the formation of the earth, why is not chanced upon another insect that makes silk? Let alone an insect, even humans cannot fabricate silk of this quality.
Despite the fact that human beings are unable to make an ant or even a grain of wheat, they deny the existence of Allahu ta’âlâ, the Creator of everything. It is extremely consternating, and it shows the idiocies of the unbelievers.
Although both the lemon and the orange are grown in the same soil, the lemon has a sour taste while the orange has a sweet taste. Likewise, whereas the onion has a strong taste, the watermelon has a sweet taste, though they take the same substances and water from earth. When we have a look at colorful flowers, for example, a violet, we see that a variety of colors has been embroidered on its petals. These inconceivably perfect and magnificent works can be created properly only by the One who has infinite power. He is Allahu ta’âlâ. Only idiots of the highest degree disbelieve in Him.
Amazing animal facts
Allahu ta’âlâ has created countless animals. He has not bestowed reason upon them in order for us to be safe from their harm and in order for them to be obedient to humans. For example, a child can shepherd a flock of sheep.
He bestowed upon carnivorous animals the ability to jump, carnassial teeth, and paws so that they can hunt easily. He created the hunting dog and police dog with peculiarities that will be of great benefit to humans. While He created some animals to be serviceable for riding and carrying loads, He created some others convenient to be benefited from their meat, milk, skin, wool, eggs, bones, and teeth. In order for them to sustain species, He has also created proper reproductive organs which are perfectly suited to the peculiarities of each species.
The elephant picks up things and takes them to its mouth by means of its trunk. The trunk is a versatile appendage: it is a container to drink water, a hand to pick up food, a nose to breathe, a load-bearing arm, a crane to lift heavy things. Allahu ta’âlâ created elephants ridable and also gave them a good level of intelligence, by means of which they are domesticated to be used for transporting loads and for warfare purposes.
The giraffe inhabits high plateaus, rocky areas, and woodlands. It gets its sustenance from higher grass and tree leaves, which other animals cannot reach or climb, thanks to its long neck created by Allahu ta’âlâ.
The fish is an aquatic animal. Allahu ta’âlâ has equipped them with fins so that they can move easily through water. He did not create lungs in them in order for them not to be stifled to death in water. Instead of lungs, He created gills, by means of which they take the oxygen from water. Although fish do not have feet, they are fast-moving in water. There are also winged-fish flying above the sea. Furthermore, it is very interesting that when in danger, the squid immediately emits ink to darken water and camouflage itself. So it is masked, and it remains unknown where it has gone.
The chameleon cannot escape from the enemies because its ability to move is limited. But Allahu ta’âlâ has given them the ability to change color, thereby they blend into the natural features of a place. They can turn to red, green or yellow. They camouflage and shield themselves from enemies by matching the color of background. Their eyes have been created mobile. When they look forward with one eye, they at the same time see backward with the other eye. It is such that they see prey or enemies without having to turn their heads. Their tongues are as long as their bodies, so they shoot their tongues like an arrow and catch the prey behind them. Since the tip of the tongue is sticky, a chameleon can easily hunt prey. If the prey hits the sticky part of the tongue, there is no chance that it can extricate itself from it. Allahu ta’âlâ, who gives sustenance of all animals and who has created suitable weapons to guard themselves against their enemies, has infinite power. Only idiots of the highest degree disbelieve this fact.
The ant gathers bits of grain and breaks them into pieces lest they sprout by absorbing the moisture from the soil. Moreover, it takes wet pieces out and leaves them to dry so that they do not spoil. They built their nests in higher places to safeguard themselves against floods. Allahu ta’âlâ inspired ants to live collectively, help one another, to gather sustenance for winter. He, who has inspired this, is sublimely exalted.
Bees, too, live collectively. Each group elects a chief for itself. If a second chief appears, they kill it. A bee does not excrete its fecal matter into honey, but outside. When bees go away and wander around, they find their hives without faltering. It would be necessary to write a book to explain honey production, its compounds and benefits, wax, and hexagonal structure of honeycombs. Is it possible to understand and explain the hikmats of Allahu ta’âlâ, who has inspired mind-blowing instincts to bees?
The stable fly is six-legged. Four of them are for walking and the other two are spare legs. If the legs it is walking with are smeared with mud, it cleans and dries them with spare legs.
The spider has an inborn web storage so that it can build its nest and set a trap for its prey. The legs of flies and of some insects get stuck in the web spinned by the spider. When the spider thus traps an insect, it surrounds the prey with a sticky substance and makes a preserve in order to eat the insect freshly whenever it wants. When the spider is hungry, it eats a bit. Then it mummifies the part from which it has bitten. Allahu ta’âlâ, who has inspired all these activities to the spider, has infinite power.
What modern factory can manufacture durable cloth from tree leaves as the silkworm can? Allahu ta’âlâ, who has inspired the silkworm to eat mulberry leaves and to produce silk from them, creates many things that will be of benefit to human beings. A silkworm becomes a butterfly as time passes. If it remained in larval form, it would be impossible for it to breed. It is nothing but idiocy to call these events the product of coincidence.
The snake that walks without feet drinks water. The cow, too, drinks water. However, the same water is transformed into venom in the snake but milk in the cow.
The tortoise, when in danger, contracts and turns to stone.
The hedgehog contracts like the thorn of astragalus.
The firefly emits light.
The bedbug recognizes the victim, whose blood it will withdraw, through its feeler that has senses of heat and smell because its feeler is a sensitive antenna. With its antenna the bug detects the air wave caused by a slight heat. If a person whose blood is liked by the bedbug is barricaded by several circles of people whose blood is not liked by the bedbug, the bedbug moves through barricades and reaches the one whose blood it likes. It escapes from some people while it chases some others. Allahu ta’âlâ, who has created such senses in a very tiny insect, has infinite power.
The bat is the only flying mammal. They are highly sensitive to sound waves. They can perceive frequencies as high as 200000 Hz. However, humans perceive 20 000 vibrations maximum as sound. They fly easily in the dark without hitting anywhere. When they fly and flap their wings, they emit high-pitched sounds that cannot be heard by humans. When these sounds hit an object, they are immediately reflected off the bat. Thus, it understands whether the object is mobile or stable. So it determines its position in accordance with this knowledge. In this way, it catches its prey or flees from its enemies.
Bats hang downward while they are taking a rest. They cover their bodies with their wings in such a manner that in rainy weather, drops of water glide down on their wings, and their bodies protected from getting wet. Similarly, they fasten on the ceiling and hang down in indoor places.
They, unlike some animals, cannot find a place to store food for winter. For this reason, Allahu ta’âlâ endowed such animals with hibernation. Bats tap fat reserves in their body at a slow rate when they hibernate. Additionally, this layer of fat gives them warmth.
Some species of bats eat mosquitoes and insects that damage crops. The excreta of some varieties are used as manure. In addition to manurial uses, their excreta are also used in making saltpeter for gunpowder production. Thanks be to our Rabb, the Owner of Hikmah, who has created living conditions for the survival of each animal and who has enabled us to benefit from animals in multifarious ways.
Animals have special defensive weapons
All animals have been created in such a way that they will breed. Furthermore, they have weapons to protect themselves against their enemies and to hunt prey. For example, a certain species of the locust sends out very smelly and poisonous foam when its enemies attack. Therefore, they have no choice but to retreat. Similarly, a type of the cockroach gushes a very hot liquid at its enemies.
Interesting facts about birds
Allahu ta’âlâ has created optimum conditions for each bird to fly with ease, to obtain its sustenance, to be shielded from cold and heat, to defend itself, and to breed. For example, He has created two feet in birds so that they assist birds in walking on the ground, in leaving the ground and in landing.
In order for them not to be affected by extreme cold and heat, He has covered their bodies with feathers and created the skin of their feet thick and invulnerable. If their feet skin were feathered, when they stepped in a puddle, feathers would become muddy and prevent them from flying. He has fastened feathers to their skin so firmly that feathers, while they are flying, do not break off, thus not leaving their bodies naked. Also, He created their feathers slippery, which make them rainproof.
Try to ponder over the hikmats in the creation of bird wings. If it were not for the bonelike shaft that supports the large vanes and if feathers sprouted from their bodies like hairs, birds could not resist the wind. The shaft bearing the vanes is thick, but it is not an obstacle to flight because it is hollow. As it is hollow and does not have marrow, it is not only injury resistant but also allows birds to fly effortlessly.
He has created such long-legged birds as white storks with long necks and long beaks so that they can get their food from water without difficulty. If they were long-legged but not long-necked or vice versa, it would make their feeding nearly impossible. For example, if the beak were shorter, the white stork could be drowned in water.
Allahu ta’âlâ has created each species of birds with different shapes of beaks that are in accord with their feeding styles. Because the beak is sharp, it fulfils the function of a knife. The things that are ripped up and taken through the beak are broken down into very small pieces owing to the high heat in the gizzard, which obviates the need to have teeth.
Allahu ta’âlâ has created them with the characteristic that they breed through oviparous method. If He created their chicks inside their bodies, they would be an obstacle to their flight. Birds have been inspired to sit on their eggs during incubation. Pigeons take turns in sitting on their eggs lest they might cool and decompose. It is as if they have been taught that the eggs will be decomposed if they give up this precaution. Who taught above-mentioned things to birds? They are not coincidental happenings but a clear manifestation of Allah’s power.
White storks migrate from Turkey to Africa. Avian migration is not only peculiar to white storks but also to other birds. In America, birds called babblers, like cranes and swallows, leave their aestival nests in Canada. After traversing mountains, forests, rivers and after the completion of a 4 000- to 5 000-kilometer long journey, they reach their winter residence in South America. They fly in flocks night and day continually for three days.
Migratory birds ascend as high as 6 km from the ground in order to find appropriate winds. They migrate to find food and to be protected from the cold. Before setting out on a journey, they store fat in their bodies. That fat has twice as much energy as the same amount of either protein or carbohydrate has is the reason why it is a good fuel for birds. They use the sun in the daytime and the stars at night as a compass to find their former nests. If the weather is foggy or cloudy, they use the earth’s magnetic field as a compass. Although humans cannot hear sounds with a frequency less than 16000 Hz, birds can hear them. Therefore, they find their way easily.
While people discovered the law of universal gravitation in the 17th century, it cannot be a coincidence that birds have measured for centuries the angle between the earth’s magnetic field and its gravitational force and have thus navigated their way. As it is seen, there is no room for coincidences in the universe. Everything comes into being through the creation of our Rabb, who is the Sublime and the Almighty.
Not every animal or vehicle can travel easily in the desert without sinking in it. Moreover, it is always difficult to find water in the desert. The scorching desert heat causes loss of water and sweating. Allahu ta’âlâ has created an animal that can successfully survive in desert conditions. This astonishing animal is the camel. Because their soles are soft like a pillow, they, unlike other animals, do not sink in sand.
The camel is an animal that can survive for a long time without eating and drinking. A camel which has gone hungry in the desert metabolizes the fat in its body and gets the necessary sustenance for itself. Their humps are fat reservoirs. During a long desert journey, it is seen that their spare food stores, their humps, gradually get smaller. As the camel feeds itself, hunger does not pose a problem.
The second important feature of camels is their ability to live without water. They can travel for a week without the need for water on torrid sand under heavy load, which is an astonishing feature.
The camel’s hump, which is a reservoir of fat, is also a water source. Following a sequence of chemical processes, which are incomprehensible to scientists, the fat in humps is transformed into water as well. That is, fat meets the needs of both food and water.
Camels kneeling down and sitting on a moist place take the required water from the moist of the ground. Since their coats can reflect the heat of the sun and thus protect them against its burning effect, they do not feel the need for water. Another feature of them is that they have been created with the qualities that they almost do not sweat at all in order not to be dehydrated and that their noses close immediately lest sand slip into them when they are faced with sandstorms.
As they do not stick their tongues out while they are grazing, water loss is less. Also, they excrete a little urine. Most of the urea in the urine is again converted into protein. Then it is passed through the liver to get both nutrients and water. Allahu ta’âlâ, the Creator of all these things, has infinite power.
Animals’ love for their offspring
Birds of prey and some species of predatory animals carry their offspring to faraway places without harming them at all. Bats, for instance, carry their chicks on their backs for 2-3 days until they find a safe place. A certain species of insects dies as soon as it lays an egg; it never sees its young baby. However, how it coddles its offspring that will hatch out is notable. The young insect is not capable of procuring its food for a year. Therefore, the mother makes a rather deep hollow in a piece of tree branch. It fills it with petals and soft twigs and lays an egg there. Then the mother makes the powder it has extracted from the tree dough and builds a ceiling from it. After completing this task, it sets about building another nest. The food it has stored in the nest suffices the young animal for a full year.
The wasp, before laying its eggs in the hole dug by it, also leaves its prey near the eggs. Then it covers the hole.
Studies have found that a sparrow makes 1,217 journeys to obtain sustenance for his newly hatched out baby.
It is also found that when animals lose their offspring they grieve much more than humans do.
When the horse loses its foal, it neighs bitterly, sheds tears, and does not allow anyone to come near it. After the foal has been buried, the horse stands there. It loses appetite. What is more, some may even end up with death.
It is a well-known fact that such animals as chickens, geese and dogs attack people not to give their offspring and that cats carry away its kittens by holding them with its mouth gently.
In a wild boar hunt, wild boars have been observed many times not to escape but to make their piglets escape by pushing them with their noses.
When a kangaroo is threatened by danger, it puts its joeys in its pouch and escapes.
It is stated in a hadîth-i sharîf:
(Allahu ta’âlâ divided His one mercy out of His one hundred mercies among His creation. With this mercy a mother shows compassion for her child, animals love their offspring and all beings feel compassion for one another.) [Abű Ya’la]
Allahu ta’âlâ, who has given this love to animals so that they can sustain their species, is all-powerful.
The importance of water, fire and air
Water: Allahu ta’âlâ, who has created all beings from water, granted us one of His greatest blessings by giving us the use of water. One who has not gone without water cannot fully appreciate its value. Furthermore, because Allahu ta’âlâ has created it abundantly, it is not valued by all people. The existence of fruit, vegetables, other plants and living beings depends entirely on water. Also, water is indispensable for digesting the ingested food. If it were not for water, digestion would not be performed, and it would be impossible to survive. What a great blessing even it is that water has the property of cleaning. You should contemplate the necessaries made from water and meals cooked with it. Do we know the value of water that we need desperately? Is it possible for a person who can ponder over the hikmats in the blessing of water not to understand the supremacy of the Creator and not to submit to Him?
Fire: Allahu ta’âlâ has created fire, which is one of the greatest blessings for humans, as a favor and beneficence and as much as it meets our needs. Every being has heat. The benefits of fire are countless. By means of it, metals are melted down and then are used in industry. Meals are cooked with it. We protect ourselves from the cold by using fire. In the same way, all lighting equipments work with it. It would be little no matter how much we express our gratitude to Allah, who has enabled us to use fire for various purposes and however we want.
Air: If air became nonexistent for a while, all living beings would perish. Since the vastly large space is filled with air, people lead a life being unaware of this vital blessing. If we fail to breathe for a few minutes, we die. On the other hand, but for air, planes could not fly. Ships and other means of transportation, too, need air. Even drops of rain fall smoothly thanks to the existence of air, because but for air, it would rain as a mass. This time we could not benefit from it. Rather, it would be a calamity. Similarly, but for air and wind, drops of rain would always fall on the same place, thus doing harm than good. Then it would not only cause drought in some places but also cause floods in some others, resulting in a devastating effect on many things. Plants would wither away and there would not be water in springs in places with drought. Required moisture not being in air, there would not be the practice of farming. Diseases would break out, and people would face famine and calamities.
Allahu ta’âlâ has created many another similar blessing for humans. He also bestowed power of reason upon humans to use these blessings. In return for all these blessings, is it not necessary for us to do our duties as human creatures?
Soil: If it were not for soil and if the ground were full of such hard substances as rock and stones everywhere, people could not grow crops, and they could not benefit from soil.
What a great blessing it is that the force of gravity has been created. If it had not been created, it would be impossible to live on the earth now. Nothing would stay in the place where it has been put but go upwards following a light hit.
The earth’s having a spherical shape causes the seasons. As for days and nights, they are caused by the earth’s spinning around itself.
Animals living in the sea outnumber land animals. Allahu ta’âlâ, who gives the sustenance of all animals, has created aquatic animals in such a manner that they can breathe in water. He created sperm whales that can grow up to 25 meters long. He also created gem-quality pearls in the abdomen of the oyster and nacre, which is used for making buttons and jewellery, in their shells. If Allahu ta’âlâ had not given water the force of buoyancy, anything in the sea would sink to the bottom of it and could in no way go up. Similarly, ships could not float and fish could not live. Each of them is a wonder. The eyes that cannot see them are blind.
Natural disasters: That such natural disasters as floods, earthquakes, and drought occur from time to time is a warning to those who are disobedient to Allahu ta’âlâ despite His endless blessings, favors, and beneficence. No blessing or disaster happens without a reason. They consist of numberless hikmats for those who contemplate.
The universe and the orderly life
We see that all living and nonliving beings are in a regular order. We learn that there is an unchanging order, a mathematical balance in the structure of every substance, in every event, in every reaction. We name these orders, these connections as laws of physics, chemistry, astronomy and biology. Utilizing this unchanging order, we develop industries, build factories, prepare new medicines, make radios, televisions, and computers. Were it not for this order in all creatures and in beings, had everything been happening by chance and haphazardly, we could not do any of these. Everything would collide, everything would be in utter disorder, and disasters would happen; all would perish.
It is purported in the Qur’ân al-karîm:
(You cannot find any disorder in the creation of the All-Compassionate, who has created the heavens in seven layers and in harmony with one another. Turn your eyes and look by taking a lesson whether there is a defect, a flaw. Turn your eyes again and look whether there is a flaw. But you cannot find what you are looking for, and you become weary.) [Sűrat-ul-Mulk, 3-4]
The fact that beings are dependent upon orders, relations and laws indicates that they did not come into being haphazardly by themselves and that they were created by a knowing, powerful, seeing, hearing supreme Being who acts as He wills: He creates or annihilates as He wishes. He has made certain things causes for His creating or annihilating each thing. If He had not created causes there would not be such an order in beings. Everything would be in complete disorder; neither His existence would be known of, nor would science or civilization exist.
He, since Âdam “alaihis-salâm,” has not only revealed His existence through this order, but also, pitying His slaves, He has informed them by sending messages through an angel to those whom He created as the best and the highest of all in the world. He informed of Himself and His Names and explained what things are expedient and what others are inapt for attaining comfort and welfare in this world and in the Hereafter. Such superior people are called Prophets. What they communicated is called Dîn (religion). Because people are apt to forget old things and because corrupt people exist in every age, who defile and change Prophets' books and utterances, the old religions were forgotten and interpolated. Corrupt people also brought forth false religions.
Having magnanimous compassion for people, Allah, the Supreme Being who created everything, sent the last Prophet and a new religion to His slaves. He gave the good news that He shall protect this religion until the last day and He shall spread it everywhere undefiled; though evil people shall attack, try to change and defile it.
Disbelieving in the existence of the Creator
Question: Many people talk about God, Paradise, and Hell. However, today science states that these are superstitions, that there is not a creator, that everything has come into existence by chance, and that everybody will return to dust and thereafter nobody will be resurrected. In the course of time, all people will be atheists, and there will be no one believing in God. The situation being so, why are people in a vain effort?
That everything has come into existence by chance is not stated by science, but by atheists. Science states its opposite. When an atheist cannot make a grain of wheat, a grain of barley, let alone create an ant, which one is the superstitious belief—stating that the human, a stupendous being, has come into existence by chance or the real truth? Do the sun, the moon, stars and all other beings in the universe have come into existence by themselves?
What idiocy it is to have a belief which will throw a person to eternal Hell fire. Hadrat ‘Alî said to an atheist who disbelieved the Resurrection:
“We believe in the next world. If there weren’t a resurrection, we would not suffer any harm because of our belief and acts of worship. But since our belief is true, you will burn eternally in the fire.”
When atheists die, according to their belief, they will become annihilated. But according to Islam atheists will suffer eternal torment in Hell, and Believers will live in eternal blessings. A person who has wisdom and knowledge, of course, prefers the second one. Even if being under eternal torment were only a probability, whichever wisdom would risk it? But torments in the next world are not a probability, but an obvious fact. What thing has been made by coincidence? Is there any work that has come into being by itself? Then, one who has wisdom and knowledge has to believe in Allah and the hereafter.
The eminent sculptor
Question: An atheist acquaintance spoke highly of Rodin and said, “Rodin, the eminent sculptor, made lifelike statues in Istanbul.” What should we say to this atheist?
You can say as follows: “While you admire a person who sculpted lifelike statues, why do you not admire the One who creates them as living beings?”
Sculpting stone aside, suppose that a body were made from flesh, how would it be given life? How can such an impotent person deny the Creator? If even a sculpture cannot be formed by chance and without a craftsman, how can other things in the universe be brought into existence without a maker? An atheist is a person who has a fear of contemplating and so who is devoid of faith.